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Psychology: society and others > Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Personality Deck (23)
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1
Q

Levels of consciousness

A

Unconscious; consists of deeply hidden memories and thoughts that cause urges and impulses
Pre conscious; easily retrievable thoughts and memories just under conscious thought
Consciousness; everything we are aware of at a time

2
Q

Freud - Anxiety

A
Occurs when there is conflict within the psyche
ego defences (repression, displacement) deal with anxiety
3
Q

Psychosexual Stages

A
Developmental stages each with a particular sexual focus
Oral Stage (0-1 years)
Anal Stage (0-3 years)
Phallic Stage (3-6 years)
Latency Stage (6-12 years)
Genital Stage (12+)
4
Q

Trait Theory - Allport

A

1897 - 1967

A trait is a generalised neurophysic system that makes environmental stimuli similar and guides consistent behaviour

5
Q

Cardinal Trait

A

An overriding trait that dictates all actions

eg Mother Theresa’s selflessness

6
Q

Central Trait

A

A tendency to think a certain way

eg. optimistic, honesty

7
Q

Secondary Trait

A

Appears in certain social situations

eg. quiet at school, extroverted in public

8
Q

Trait Theory - Eysenk

A

1916 - 1997
Personality is a stable, enduring organisation of character, temperament and intellect, which determines their adjustment to their environment

9
Q

Eysenk - Personality Factors

A

1985
Extraversion - Introversion
Stability - Instability
Psychotism (antisocial tendencies)

extraverted and stable = carefree, leader
extraverted and unstable = aggressive

10
Q

Humanistic Theories Overview

A

The belief that people are good and strive to reach their potential, resulting in personality

11
Q

Carl Rogers Self Theory

A

1902 - 1987

Personality develops through striving to achieve our potential, making the most of our skills

12
Q

Carl Rogers - Concept of self

A

To be well adjusted, there must be a good match between the true self, self image and real self

13
Q

Carl Rogers - Fully Functioning Person

A

Is open to experiences, lives in the present, trusts instincts, responsible, experiences unconditional positive regard

14
Q

Abraham Maslow - Heirarchy of Needs

A

1908 - 1970

To achieve self actualisation, we must satisfy lower order needs (basic, psychological, self fulfilment)

15
Q

Projective testing

A

The patient is required to interpret “meaningless” stimuli

  • Thematic Appreciation Test
  • Rorchach Ink Blot Test
16
Q

Thematic Appreciation Test

A

1943
Consists of 10 drawings, the patient must explain scenarios leading up to, during, and following the event
It reveals feelings about social relationships (Alvarado 1994)

17
Q

Rorstach Ink Blot Test

A

1920

5 black and white, 5 coloured cards that the patient must interpret, and their answers are then interpreted

18
Q

Advantages of Projective Testing

A

Difficult to fake answers
Able to gauge body language
Ink blot test is effective in detecting psychosis (Gallen 1996)

19
Q

Disadvantages of Projective Testing

A

Psychologists own personality can be projected into the results
Most people are diagnosed as mentally disturbed (Wood et al 2003)
Variability and reliability is poor

20
Q

Non Projective Testing

A

Self Reports; a personality profile is developed through responses to questions
Includes trick questions to check honesty
0-10 Rating scale

21
Q

Advantages of Self Reports

A
Objective
Easily compared
Can eliminate faking
Group testing
Simple scoring
22
Q

Disadvantages of Self Reports

A

Structured questions can inhibit deeper feelings
The questions are obvious - easy to provide socially acceptable questions
Focussed on trait and behaviours that don’t predict behaviour

23
Q

Freud - parts of the psyche

A

the id - irrational, pleasure seeking; completely unconscious
the ego - rational, develops around 2 due to environmental exposure; on all levels of consciousness
the super-ego - moralistic, develops around 5, blocks unacceptable urges from the id