Flashcards in Personality and abnormal personality Deck (98)
What is a mental disorder?
A clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual associated with present distress or disability, significant increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability or an important loss of freedom.
What is a mental disorder not?
An expected or culturally sanctioned response to a particular event - hence grief is different to mental illness.
The behaviour and conflicts between individual and society, unless it is the symptom of dysfunction.
What must a mental disorder be?
Currently considered a manifestation of a behaviour, psychological or biological dysfunction in the individual.
What is common in personality disorders?
What is a personality trait?
An enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited across a wide range of social and personal contexts.
How are personality traits related to personality disorders?
When traits are inflexible, maladaptive and cause functional impairment and/or distress.
What is a personality disorder?
An enduring pattern of inner experience and behaviour that deviates markedly from expectations of prevailing culture. Manifests within two or more of: cognitions, affectivity, interpersonal functioning and impulse control.
What are the features (A-E) of personality disorders according to the DSM?
A disorder that:
A. Is inflexible and pervasive across contexts
B. Leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other areas
C. Is stable and can be traced back to adolescence or before
D. Is not better accounted for by another disorder
E. Is not due to physiological effects of substance or general medical condition
How are personality disorders coded (Axis II)?
What is Cluster A, and what personality disorders does it include?
Odd, eccentric. Includes paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal.
What is Cluster B, and what personality disorders does it include?
Dramatic, emotional. Includes antisocial personality disorder, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic.
What is Cluster C, and what personality disorders does it include?
Fearful, anxious. Includes avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive.
What is the prevalence of paranoid PD?
- 0.5-2.5% general population
- 2-10% outpatient mental health
- 10-30% inpatient mental health
- Increased if family has history of schizophrenia and delusions
When are symptoms of paranoid PD apparent from?
Childhood and adolescence.
What did Edens, Marcus & Morey (2009) state?
Evidence supports a dimensional rather than a dichotomous model for paranoid PD.
What is paranoid PD characterised by?
A pervasive pattern of mistrust of other people.
What are the main diagnostic criteria for paranoid PD?
Pervasive distrust and suspicion of others across contexts which doesn’t occur exclusively during a psychotic disorder or due to medication.
What is the prevalence of schizoid PD?
- Uncommon in clinical settings
- Increased if family history in schizophrenia and schizotypal
What is schizoid PD distinguished from?
Psychotic disorders, ASD, avoidant and OCD.
What is schizoid PD not to be confused with?
Those who have defensive interpersonal styles, e.g. those who have moved to a strange new area.
When are symptoms of schizoid PD apparent from?
Childhood and adolescence - solitariness and poor peer relations (prone to victimisation).
Outline the key diagnostic criteria for schizoid PD.
- Pervasive detachment from social relationships
- Restricted emotional expression
- Doesn’t occur exclusively during a psychotic disorder or due to medication
What is the prevalence of schizotypal PD?
- 3% in general population
- Increased if 1st degree family shows biological schizophrenia
What is schizotypal PD distinguished from?
Psychotic disorders, schizoid PD, avoidant PD, ASD and language disorders.
What is schizotypal PD not to be confused with?
Those who have religious beliefs characterised by rituals.
How does schizotypal PD change over a lifetime?
Very little - stable life course, very few develop schizophrenia. However structure changes to become taxonic in adults (Fossati et al., 2007).
Outline the diagnostic criteria for schizotypal PD.
- Acute pervasive discomfort with social relationships
- Cognitive and perceptual distortions
- Eccentric behaviour
- Doesn’t occur exclusively with a psychotic disorder, pervasive development disorder or due to medication
What is the prevalence of antisocial PD?
- 3% males, 1% females (community samples)
- 3-30% in clinical samples
- Higher in drug treatment and forensic settings
- Increased if family history of antisocial PD or substance abuse
- Nurture also plays a part in familial relationships
- Higher in lower SES, perhaps due to middle class judgements of acceptable behaviours.
What is antisocial PD distinguished from?
Substance-related disorders, narcissistic PD, histrionic PD, borderline PD and paranoid PD.