Persuasion CH Flashcards Preview

Hypnosis > Persuasion CH > Flashcards

Flashcards in Persuasion CH Deck (134):
1

Heuristic Message Processing

shortcuts to make decisions and process info

2

7 Heuristics Messages

1. Fixed-action Patterns
2. Trigger Feature
3. Mimics
4. Click, whirr
5. Judgment heuristics
6. Contrast principle
7. Controlled responding

3

Fixed-action Patterns

-involve intricate sequences of behavior that occur in virtually the same fashion and in the same order every time (Ex: Chicks cheep, mother nurtures)

4

Trigger Feature

often just one tiny aspect of the total stimulus which sets off a predictable response (Ex: Cheeping sound from chick)

5

Mimics

copy the trigger feature of the animals in an attempt to trick these animals into mistakenly playing the right behavior tapes at the wrong time (Ex: Grouper Fish and Saber Tooth Fish

6

click, whirr

humans tend to respond in the same way animals do; that is, with the predictable response to a specific stimulus

7

judgment heuristics

shortcuts that allow for simplified thinking works well most of the time but leaves us open to occasional, costly mistakes

8

contrast principle

if the 2nd item is fairly different from the first, we tend to see it as more different than it actually is

9

controlled responding

reacting on the basis of thorough analysis of all information (making a decision after having all the info)

10

4 Reasons for studying persuasion

1. becoming an effective persuader is helpful
2. persuasion as a field of study fulfills a knowledge function
3. by understanding the process of persuasion, you will be better equipped to deal with persuasive situations
4. you will come to understand what persuasion really is, not what it is perceived to be.

11

Pure Persuasion

includes clear-cut cases of persuasion on which people would agree

12

Borderline Persuasion

incorporates cases of persuasion that lie at the periphery of what is normally considered social influence

13

5 Persuasion Criteria

1. intentionality
2. effects
3. degree of free will
4. symbolic action
5. interpersonal vs. intrapersonal communication

14

intentionality

focuses on the source's intention for communicating

pure: source-based where intent on the part of the source is necessary

borderline: suggest persuasion can occur absent of intent. People don't know what they intend. Situation may include individuals the source never intended to receive the message. difficult to ascertain one's intent.

15

effects

focuses on the outcome of the communication

pure: receiver-based orientation where a successful outcome is necessary (implies a linear view of persuasion)

borderline: suggests persuasion occurs even if the attempt is unsuccessful or only somewhat successful.
-tend to view persuasion as a process rather than a product
-difficult to measure persuasive outcome

16

degree of free will

focuses on the extent to which an individual feels coerced or pressured to conform

pure: receiver-based orientation where individual feels free to determine how to act

borderline: considers some degree of coercion acceptable
-what one considers coercive, another may not

17

symbolic action

focuses on the type of communication that can be construed as persuasion

pure: symbolic expression, including language and other meaning-laden acts (non-verbal)

borderline: incorporates a variety of cues as means of persuasion such as aromas, involuntary actions, and physical attributes (Ex: auntie anne's pretzel smell/george winking due to grapefruit in the eye from Seinfeld/tall=leader)

18

interpersonal vs. intrapersonal communication

focuses on the # of individuals involved in persuasion

pure: suggests two or more people are necessary for persuasion to occur (interpersonal)

borderline: incorporates self-persuasion as a possibility (interpersonal)

19

4 Persuasive Responses

1. Response-changing process
2. Response-shaping process
3. Response-reinforcing process
4. Response-extinguishing process

20

response-changing process

changing one's attitudes, beliefs, or behavior

21

response-shaping process

creating new attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors not yet held

22

response-reinforcing process

strengthening attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors already held

23

response-extinguishing process

eliminating attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors already held

24

Persuasion (definition)

-involves 1 or more persons who are engaged in the activity of creating, reinforcing, modifying, or extinguishing beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations and/or behaviors w/in the constraints of a given communication context

-the potential for persuasion exists in most human communication, but not in all human behavior (e.g. breathing, sleeping, etc)

25

Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

-suggests there are 2 routes to persuasion; a central route and a peripheral route

26

Persuasion through a central route

Requires motivation, comprehension, and careful thought (processing) about the content of the message.

Tends to be longer lasting and more resistant to change

27

Persuasion through the peripheral route

occurs through cues rather than through careful consideration of the message

short term and highly subject to change

28

Attitude

a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward some attitude object

29

4 attitude characteristics

1. attitudes are learned
2. attitudes direct behavior (to a large extent)
3. attitudes have an evaluative component
4. attitudes are directed towards things

30

Attitude measurement

-attitudes are difficult to measure bc they are in people's heads and therefore cannot be directly observed
-attitudes are often measured through self-reports
-scales are often used to measure attitudes

31

Likert scales

-consist of declarative statements followed by a continuum of choices ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"
-numbers are associated with each response category are then averaged to estimate one's attitude

32

Semantic Differential scales

-consists of bipolar adjectives separated by a number of spaces
-numbers associated with each space are then averaged to estimate one's attitude

33

Visually oriented scales

-consist of some type of visual representation to approximate attitude such as faces and thermometers
-useful for respondents who are less well educated or otherwise unfamiliar

34

Measurement difficulties

-social desirability
-non-attitudes
-acquiescence bias
-mindfulness

35

social desirability

respond in a politically correct manner

36

non-attitudes

make up attitude

37

acquiescence bias

agreement tendency

38

mindfulness

must be aware of attitudes

39

Theory of reasoned action

attitude toward, and subjective norms associated with the behavior predict one's intent to engage in the behavior; one's intent is a good predictor of actual behavior

40

Psychological consistency

individuals motivated to maintain consistency both internally and externally.

41

6 steps to resolving inconsistency

1. denial
2. bolstering
3. differentiation
4. transcendence
5. modifying
6. communicating

42

denial

deny or ignore inconsistency

43

bolstering

rationalizing or making excuses

44

differentiation

separating or distinguishing inconsistent attitudes

45

transcendence

focus on larger or higher level issue

46

modifying

altering one or both attitudes

47

communicating

convincing others that this inconsistency is ok

48

balance theory

-individuals try to maintain a balanced state between 3 or more entities in a relationship
-can also be used to explain use of celebrities

49

4 ways to create commitment

1. brand loyalty
2. cognitive dissonance
3. selective exposure
4. counter-attitudinal advocacy

50

Brand Loyalty

refers to methods used to maintain consistent behavior among consumers (e.g. essays, coupons, frequent user programs)
-these tactics work well bc they get consumers to actively commit and consistent behavior follow

51

cognitive dissonance

-after making a decision, consumers worry about whether the choice made was the right one, and thus experience dissonance (linked to buyer's remorse)
-the amount or magnitude of dissonance one experiences is positively related to the amount of freedom one had in making the choice
-since dissonance is uncomfortable, we try to reduce it

52

Selective Exposure

-refers to the process where we seek confirming info. and avoid disconfirming info
-studies suggest that while individuals do seek confirming information, they do not necessarily avoid disconfirming info.

53

Counter-attitudinal advocacy

-process of having an individual create a message advocating a position that goes against existing attitudes
-some attitude shift will occur as the individual reconciles inconsistency

54

Conditions under which committment is most effective (4)

1. active
2. public
3. effortful
4. freely chosen

55

active (condition for commitment)

engaging in some way (ex: essay contests)

56

public (condition for commitment

made in front of others

57

effortful (condition for commitment)

difficult to achieve (ex: initiations)

58

freely chosen (condition for commitment)

made without reservation

59

two strategies to obtain commitment

1. foot in the door
2. lowball technique

60

foot-in-the-door

begins with a small request in order to gain eventual compliance with related larger requests

61

lowball technique

make an offer that cannot be refused. once agreed to, even removing something positive (or adding something negative) will not affect commitment

62

growing legs to stand on

the reason for initial commitment leads to other reasons for commitment
-even when the initial reason is eliminated, commitment remains

63

credibility

-judgments made by a perceiver concerning the believability of a communicator
-there is no objective credibility; it depends on the perception of the receiver
-credibility is multidimensional
-credibility is determined by the communicator situation or context
-credibility is dynamic

64

3 primary dimensions of credibility

1. expertise
2. trustworthiness
3. goodwill

*Must have all 3

65

expertise

-the extent to which a source is perceived to be knowledgeable about a particular topic

66

trustworthiness

the extent to which a source can be trusted to provide accurate information

67

goodwill

the extent to which a source seems to care for the receiver (e.g. empathy)

68

4 secondary dimensions of credibility

1. extroversion (dynamism)
2. composure
3. sociability
4. inspiring

69

extroversion

the extent to which the source is perceived as energetic, animated, and/or enthusiastic

70

composure

the extent to whihc the source is perceived to be calm and collected

71

sociability

the extent to whcih the source is perceived to be friendly and likeable

72

inspiring

the extent to whcih the source is perceived to have a positive influence on others

73

Absolute sleeper effect

message from a low credibility source may increase in persuasiveness over time, compared to a message from a high credibility (this occurs bc the receiver disassociates the message from the source)

74

Relative Sleeper Effect

Both message effects decrease over time but the high credibility message decreases more than the low credibility message

75

Impression Management Theory

focuses on the ways in which individuals (and organizations) attempt to manage their self-image

76

facework

where one's face is his/her social standing in the eyes of others

77

positive face

desire to be perceived in a certain way

78

negative face

the desire to be autonomous

79

Liking

people do things for you just because they like you

80

6 components of liking

1. attractiveness
2. similarity
3. compliments
4. familiarity
5. cooperation
6. association

81

attractiveness

relatively more attractive people are better liked

82

similarity

appearing similar to others will increase liking

83

compliments

we like to hear nice things about ourselves and like those who provide them

84

familiarity

the more familiar something is the more we will like it

85

cooperation

we tend to like those who cooperate with us

86

association

links to good things reflects positvely on us.

87

Reciprocation (Pre-giving)

seek compliance by acting nice or doing favors for another in advance

88

Rule of Reciprocation

We will repay in kind what we have taken even when we did not ask for the girft, don't like the gift, and even wehn we dont care for the giver
-when someone gives us something we feel indebted and thus carry a burden until we have repaid the favor
-when pregiving is construed as a bribe or pressure tactic, persuasion decreases

89

6 Sequential Strategies

1. Pre-giving
2. Lowball
3. Foot-in-the-door
4. Door-in-the-face
5. That's not all
6. Bate & Switch

90

Foot-in-the-Door

involves a small request followed by a larger request (which is the goal of the persuader)

91

Self-perception theory

-explains foot-in-the-door tactic
-suggests people learn about their attitudes by observing their behaviors
-people want to remain consistent

92

Foot-in-the-Mouth effect

responding "good" to the question, "how are you?"

93

Door-in-the-Face

begins with a large request that is turned down and followed by a more moderate request (the real goal of the persuader)

94

5 DITF's

1. perceptual contrast effect
2. Reciprocation (concessions)
3. self-presentation
4. social responsibility position
5. guilt-based account

95

perceptual contrast effect

the 2nd, more moderate request smaller than it really is when compared to the large initial request

96

reciprocation (concessions)

making a concession, like doing a favor, creates a sense of indebtedness. here, we also make a concession and accept the more moderate request

97

self-presentation

after refusing an offer individuals are concerned they might be viewed negatively and thus accept the 2nd request (externally-based)

98

social responsibility

individuals are more likely to agree when the request is seen as socially appropriate (internally based)

99

guilt-based account

individuals try to reduce guilt from declining first request, and thus afree to the second

100

Optimal Conditions for door-in-the-face (5)

1. first request must be large enough to be turned down, but not so large as to appear incredulous
2. pro-social requests rather than self-serving requests are more effective
3. delay between requests should be brief
4. requests must come from the same person
5. works best on "exchange oriented" people

101

That's Not All

-strategy where add-ons are thrown into the deal at no extra charge
-effectiveness may be explained though the norm of reciprocity as well as the contrast effect

102

Bait-and-Switch

offers a great deal that is unavailable (sold out), but individuals become committed and purchase something more expensive

103

norms

refer to expectations held by a group of people about what begaviors or opinions are right or wrong, good or bad, acceptable or unacceptable, etc.

104

explicit norms

refers to norms that are openly communicated

105

implicit norms

refers to norms that are not communicated

106

Sherif and Asch studies

Sherif-autkinetic effect
Asch-matching lines

107

2 explanations for group influence

1. informational influence
2. normative influence

108

informational influence

suggests conformity to a group occurs bc we want to be right (and we think the group is right)

109

normative influence

suggests conformity to a group occurs bc we want to be like (even if we think the group is wrong)

110

Group Attractiveness

relatively more attractive groups are more influential than relatively less attractive groups

111

indoctrination

we value groups more when initiation is severe

112

identification

we value groups whose members are similar to us in attitudes, values, behaviors, etc. Excessive identification may lead to negative consequences such as ethnocentrism and groupthink

113

Communicator Characteristics: gender

women are more likely to conform than are men

114

Communicator Characteristics: Age

teens are likely to conform to peer groups due to peer pressure

115

Communicator Characteristics: Personality

those most likely to conform
-low cognitive complexity
-low need for control
-high self-monitors
-high need for affiliation and group identification

116

11 Conformity Explanations

1. Group Locomotion Hypothesis
2. Social Comparison Theory
3. Consistency (balance) theory
4. Epistemological weighting hypothesis
5. hedonistic hypothesis
6. deindividuation
7. risky shift phenomenon
8. social proof
9. Werther effect
10. Scarcity
11. authority

117

group locomotion hypothesis

group members are motivated to achieve the group's goals

118

social comparison theory

we make judgments about ourselves through comparison to others.

119

consistency (balance) theory

it is uncomfortable to disagree with a group one finds attractive

120

epistemological weighting hypothesis

We gain knowledge through personal trial and observation. Those who weigh personal trial more, or less persuadable than those who weigh observation more (epistemolgy-how we know things)

121

Hedonistic Hypothesis

we conform to avoid pain and gain pleasure

122

deindividuation

-occurs when being in a group of people causes people to become less aware of themselves and less concerned
-individuals are thus more likely to behave in ways they would not if they were alone (e.g. lynch mobs, riots, etc.)

123

risky shift phenomenon

individuals make relatively riskier decisions when they are in groups as compared to when they are alone

124

social proof

suggest we determine what is correct by finding out what they do (look to others in time of uncertainty to see how to behave)

125

Werther Effect

after a highly publicized suicide, there is a spike in the # of suicides in that geographic area (has to do with social proof) people see others in same state of depression that they are in and commit suicide jsut as the others due
-also leads to higher rate of car/plane accidents in same area

126

scarcity

opportunities seem more valuable to us when they are less available. people do not like to have their freedom taken away

127

limited numbers

individuals tend to be more easily persuaded when quantities are in short supply

128

time limit

if behavior does not occur w/in a specified amount of time, the opportunity is lost
-newly scarce items are more profitable than items that have been scarce for a long time (Ex: Beanie Babies)

129

authority

obedience to authority (Milgrim)
-experiment designed to learn conditions under which obedience is most likely

130

4 conditions based on victim immediacy

1. remote feedback
2. voice feedback
3. proximity
4. touch proximity

131

remote feedback

learner could not be seen or hear (at 300 volts he pounded on the wall)

132

voice feedback

voice protests were introduced

133

proximity

learner was placed 1.5 ft. from the learner in the same room

134

touch-proximity

learner received shock only when his hand was on a shock plate (at 150 volts the teacher had to force the learner's hand onto the plate