PH - UR Flashcards Preview

Genitourinary tract - pathology > PH - UR > Flashcards

Flashcards in PH - UR Deck (10)
Loading flashcards...
1

In which 3 common sites do renal calculi (kidney stones) commonly get stuck?

Pelviureteric junction
Pelvic brim
Vesicoureteric junction

2

Name 2 conditions that predispose calcium stone formation

medullary sponge kidney
polycystic kidney disease

3

What is hyperoxaluria? What does it predispose to? name 3 causes of it

A. High oxalate levels excreted by the kidney

B. predisposes to formation of calcium oxalate crystals (even when calcium is normal)

Causes: high dietary intake (spinach), chronic malabsorption, primary hyperoxaluria (rare AR enzyme deficiency = high production of oxalate)

4

How do certain UTIs lead to stone formation?

Organisms produce urease (lebsiella, proteus)


= ammonium, magnesium and calcium
containing stones

5

A urine dipstick in renal calculi is usually
positive for what? (90%)

Blood

6

List 4 investigations that might be performed
in renal colic

Mid-stream stream urine culture


Urine dipstick


U and Es


Abdominal x ray


Spiral CT - first choice

7

What is the initial management of renal colic?
(3)

Diclofenac (analgesia)


IV fluids (if unable to drink)


Cefuroxime (antibiotics)

8

What is the medical treatment to aid passing
of a renal stone?

(>5mm)

Nifedipine


Or alpha blockers (tamulosin)


Prednisolone (to lower inflammation)

advanced: if no cleared in 48hrs
Shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) - ultrasound waves to break stone

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) - keyhole surgery

9

What is the prevention strategy for uric acid
stones?

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor
allopurinol

10

What protein does PKD1 code for? What does
this protein do?

Polycystin-1

Integral membrane protein which regulates
tubular and vascular development of kidneys
(ADPKD - also PKD2)