Pharm 1 Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular Drugs > Pharm 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharm 1 Deck (17)
Loading flashcards...
1

Nitrates (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Cause NO release -> vasodilation (veins >>> arteries); used in angina; fast tolerance, hypotension, flushing, headache

2

Niacin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibits lipolysis and reduces VLDL secretion, lowering LDL and raising HDL; hyperlipidemia; flushing and hyperuricemia

3

Cholestyramine, colestipol, colesevelam (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibits reabsorption of bile acids -> lower LDL with slight increase in HDL; unpigmented gallbladder stones and malabsorption

4

Ezetimibe

Prevents cholesterol reabsorption -> lower LDL

5

Fibrates (gemfibrozil + -fibrates) (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Upregulates LPL (lipoprotein lipase), activates PPAR-alpha to induce HDL synthesis -> lower triglycerides, slightly inc. HDL and slightly dec. LDL; myositis (aka rhabdomyolysis) and hepatoxicity

6

Digoxin and digitoxin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibits Na/K ATPase -> indirectly inhibits Na/Ca exchanger -> inc. calcium levels -> inc. contractility, Stimulates the vagus; CHF, afib; causes cholinergic symptoms and hyperkalemia

7

Adverse effects of statins

Hepatoxicity and muscle breakdown

8

Class 1A antiarrhythmics

Quinidine, procainamide, and disopyramide; inc. AP duration and QT interval; can cause torsades de pointes, cinchonism (qunidine), procainamide (drug-induced lupus)

9

Class 1B antiarrhythmics

Lidocaine, mexiletine, and tocainide; dec. AP duration especially in depolarized/ischemia tissue; best following MI

10

Class 1C antiarrhythmics

Flecainide, propafenone; no effect on AP, used in ventricular tachycardias; do not use post-MI due to risk for arrhythmias

11

Class 1 antiarrhythmics (general mechanism and toxicity)

Blocks Na channels, decreasing the slope of phase 0 depolarization; toxicity exacerbated by hyperkalemia

12

Class 2 antiarrhythmics

Beta-blockers; reduces cAMP, slowing SA and AV node activity, increases PR interval; adverse effects include impotence, asthma exacerbation, sedation

13

Class 3 antiarrhythmics

Amiodarone, ibutilide, dofetilide, sotalol; K channel blockers; inc. AP duration and QT interval

14

Toxicity of amiodarone

Pulmonary fibrosis, hepatotoxicity, thyroid dysfunction

15

Class 4 antiarrhythmics

Ca channel blockers; verapamil and diltiazem; dec. conduction velocity and inc. PR interval; cause constipation, flushing, and edema

16

Adeosine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inc. K efflux, hyperpolarizing the cell; used in supraventricular tachycardias; can cause flushing, hypotension, and chest pain

17

Magnseium (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Used in torsades de pointes and digoxin toxicity