Pharm: Benefit vs. Risk of Drug Therapy Flashcards Preview

CMOD/PCM- Block 2 > Pharm: Benefit vs. Risk of Drug Therapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharm: Benefit vs. Risk of Drug Therapy Deck (16):
1

According to studies discussed, do physicians and other healthcare professionals use evidence-based medicine effectively?

Unfortunately, no. Physicians fall victim to the same reporting tricks that make patients view outcome measures differently.

2

What is EER?

experimental event rate; the rate at which the experimental agent or variable has an outcome effect

3

What is CER?

control (or comparison) event rate; the rate at which the outcome occurs in the control group

4

What is relative risk?

the probability of the outcome in treated patients relative to the probability of the outcome in untreated patients

5

How is relative risk calculated?

RR = EER / CER

6

What is the relative risk ratio?

the difference in proportions of untreated and treated patients who experience a particular outcome relative to the proportion of untreated patients who would experience the outcome

7

How is the relative risk ratio calculated?

RRR = (CER -- EER) / CER

8

True or false: the relative risk ratio tends to hide small differences in effect.

False - it tends to exaggerate small differences. For example: say a drug reduces the rate of death in a sick patient population. Placebo group sees 10% death while drug group sees 8% death. The RR is 2% different but the RRR is 20% less in the drug group; makes a small difference (2%) look bigger/exaggerated (20%).

9

What is absolute risk?

the absolute difference in the proportion of treated and untreated patients who experience an outcome

10

Absolute risk can have 2 forms, depending on whether risk goes up or down. What are they called?

Absolute risk reduction
Absolute risk increase

11

Which method of reporting risk is the most straightforward?

Absolute risk

12

How is the absolute risk calculated?

ARR = CER – EER

13

What is the NNT?

Number Needed to Treat; this number is the number of people needed to undergo treatment before one person will experience benefit; another way of reporting an outcome, ex: if the absolute risk reduction is 2%, the NNT is 50 because 2 are benefitted per every 100 treated

14

How is NNT calculated?

NNT = 100 / ARR

15

What is the number needed to harm?

the complement to NNT when examining the number of patients who will be treated before a patient experiences harm from the treatment; this can be lower than the NNT and is important to consider when evaluating risk/benefit

16

What is meant by an evidence-based approach to therapeutics?

this would be accurately considering the risk/benefit ratios, and not being afraid to admit that a treatment might not actually have any more benefit than doing nothing - because people are actually designed to heal themselves -- *mind blown*