Pharm: CYP enzymes. Flashcards Preview

Abbey MSII Unit 1 pt 2 > Pharm: CYP enzymes. > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharm: CYP enzymes. Deck (34):
1

What do CYP enzymes do?

perform RedOx reactions - PHASE I

2

Where are CYP enzymes?

smooth ER mostly in the liver

3

prodrug

medication that is administered in an inactive or less than fully active form, and is then converted to its active form through a normal metabolic process

4

induction

biotransformation by induced CYP enzymes results in either INCREASED activity of PRODRUGS or ENHANCED ELIMINATION of DRUGS

5

inhibition

results in INCREASED BIOAVAILABILITY of a DRUG or DECREASED activity of PRODRUG

6

polymorphism

genetic change that exists for at least 1% of the population - CYP polymorphism occurs when the biotransforming properties of an enzyme are altered

7

substrate

a substance (drug/medication) acted on by an enzyme

8

Which enzyme is the highest percent of liver CYPs?

3A4

9

CYP1A2 examples

caffeine and theophylline

10

CYP2C9 examples

phenytoin (anti-seizure drug) and warfarin

11

CYP2C19 examples

diazepam

12

CYP2D6 examples

codeine

13

CYP2E1 examples

paracetamol (tylenol)

14

CYP3A4 examples

terfenadine (anti histamine) and verapamil

15

warfarin

used to inhibit the clotting factors 2,7,9,10 - anticoagulant

16

What are inducers of CYP1A2?

smoking, charred food

17

What are inducers of CYP2C9?

rifampicin

18

What are inducers of CYP2C19?

St John’s wort

19

What are inducers of CYP2D6?

rifampicin

20

What are inducers of 3A4?

St. John’s wort

21

What specific drugs are St. John’s wort an inducer of?

diazepam and verapamil

22

What specific drugs are rifampin an inducer of?

codeine, warfarin, phenytoin

23

Normal drugs

caffein, theophylline, verapamil

24

Prodrug

codeine (-> morphine)

25

What is an inhibitor of CYP1A2?

grapefruit juice

26

What is an inhibitor of CYP2C9?

macrolides

27

What is an inhibitor of CYP2C19?

fluoxetine

28

What is an inhibitor of CYP2D6?

quinidine, haloperidol

29

What is an inhibitor of CYP3A4?

ketoconazole (for fungal infections), itraconazole

30

Which 3 enzymes exhibit polymorphisms?

2C9, 2C19, and 2D6

31

Poor metabolizers polymorphisms

2C9 and 2C19 (2D6 is both poor and extensive)

32

African americans show high polymorphism in which enzyme?

2C19, slightly high in 2D6 (diazepam)

33

Asians show polymorphism in which enzyme?

2C19 (diazepam)

34

Caucasians show polymorphism in which enzyme?

2D6 (high percentage don’t make morphine from codeine)