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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (16):
1

Who is prone to develop malignant hyperthermia?

Kids with muscular dystrophy and neuromuscular conditions

2

How is malignant hyperthermia treated?

- Dantrolene
- Cooling
- O2
- Hyperventilation

3

What are six hepatic inhibitors?

- Fluconazole (and other -azoles)
- Sulfonamide
- Isoniazid
- H2 blockers (cimetidine)
- Grapefruit juice
- Erythromycin


SICKFACES.COM
Sodium valproate
Isoniazid
Cimetidine
Ketoconazole
Fluconazole
Alcohol..binge drinking
Chloramphenicol
Erythromycin
Sulfonamides
Ciprofloxacin
Omeprazole
Metronidazole

4

Intrauterine cocaine exposure

- Premature birth
- Minimal withdrawal symptoms

5

Intrauterine heroin exposure

- Intrauterine fetal demise
- Withdrawal symptoms of seizures, tremors, irritability
- Induces lung maturity

6

Intrauterine methadone exposure

- Seizures
- Symptoms may not present for up to 4 to 6 weeks

7

Intrauterine lithium exposure

- Ebstein's anomaly

Toxicity: heart arrhythmias including heart blocks

8

Intrauterine warfarin exposure

Fetal warfarin syndrome:
- Flat nasal bridge
- Hypoplastic nose
- Hypoplastic distal phalanges
- Stippling of the vertebrae

9

Intrauterine anti-seizure medication exposure

Makes everything small: small baby, small head, small nostrils, small nails, small ❤️ valves.
- Cardiac defects: tetralogy of fallot, aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis (seizures sounds like TAP TAP TAP: TOF, AS, PS)
- Microcephaly
- Anti-convulsant facies (broad nasal bridge, small nostrils, angry look)
- IUGR
- Fingernail hypoplasia

10

Intrauterine phenytoin exposure

Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome
- Finger and nail hypoplasia
- wide anterior fontanelle
- Prominent metopic ridge (bony ridge secondary to abnormal closure of fontanelle)
- Wide spaced eyes
- Depressed nasal bridge
- Short upturned nose
- Cleft lip/palate

11

Intrauterine valproic acid exposure

- small mouth
- small chin
- Midface hypoplasia
- spina bifida

12

Intrauterine carbamazepine exposure

- spinal and facial deformities
- spina bifida

13

Intrauterine ethanol exposure

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
- small for gestational age
- Midface hypoplasia
- then upper lip
- smooth philtrum
- small fifth fingernail
- fifth finger clinodactyly
- ASD
- VSD

14

Intrauterine vitamin a exposure

- transposition of the great vessels

15

Intrauterine isotretinoin exposure

- small ears
- small eyes
- small head
- small jaw
- small thymus
- cardiac defects: tetralogy of fallot, truncus arteriosus, transposition of the great vessels
- CNS problems: hydrocephalus

"Isotretinoin not only shrinks pimples, but it also shrinks the head, ears, eyes, and thymus."

16

What is the difference between fetal alcohol syndrome and intrauterine exposure to seizure medications?

FAS: SGA, ASD, VSD

Seizure: IUGR, AS, PS