Pharmacology - Block 3_Anti-Parasite Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology - Block 3_Anti-Parasite Deck (21):
1

Mebendazole

anti-nematode
damage to cytoplasmic microtubules
intestinal roundworms
kills some ova
low bioavailability, low toxicity

2

Albendazole

anti-nematode
same as mebendazole, but good systemic distribution
Echinococcus
also treats neurocystercosis
sides: elevated hepatic enzymes, GI

3

Thiabendazole

anti-nematode
hookworms: affects mitochondrial fumarate reductase
Strongyloides: inhibits microtubules
can be oral or topical
sides: nausea, dizzyness

4

Pyrantel pamoate

anti-nematode
depolarizing neuromuscular blocker, paralyzes worm
hookworm, pinworm, roundworm
NOT for Trichuris
sides: GI

5

Praziquantel

anti-fluke
increases membrane permeability to Ca, muscle contraction
Schistosoma
also for other trematodes and cestodes (tapeworm - t. SOLIUM, PREVENTS NEUROCYSTERCOSIS)
sides: GI

6

Paromomycin Sulfate

aminoglycoside-like anti-amebiasis
inhibits protein synthesis
luminal amebicide
3rd choice against cestodes
sides: GI

7

Chloroquine

anti-malaria
blood schizonticide
parsitized erythrocytes concentrate the drug
inhibits heme polymerization
prents all malaria, cures malariae, falcip.
does not cure vivax or ovale
sides: visual probs

8

Mefloquine

anti-malaria
similar to chloroquine
for falcip and vivax, used where chloroquine resistance
sides: CNS

9

Atovaquone + Proguanil

anti-malaria
blood schizonticides
both block pyrimidine synthesis
atovaquone: inhibits electron transport (also for pneumocystis in AIDS, and with rifabutin for toxoplasma gondii)
proguanil: inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
used for chloroquine resistant falcip
sides: GI, rash

10

Quinine

anti-malaria
similar to chloroquine
choice for severe acute attacks, quick action
and chloroquine resistant falcip.
sides: cinchonism (headache, visual), GI, cardiac like quinidine

11

Doxycycline

anti-malaria
depresses gihydroorotate dehydrogenase, thus blocks pyrimidine synthesis
used for multi-drug resistant falcip.

12

Primaquine

anti-malaria
used for radical cure, bc will kill dormant liver schizonts (ovale, vivax)
used in combo w/ blood schizticide
also in combo w/ clinda for pnemocystis in AIDS
sides: hemolytic w/ G6PD deficiency

13

Metronidazole

tissue amebicide for symptomatic E histolytica
also for Giardia and Trichomonas vaginalis

14

Iodoquinol

luminal amebicide
combo w/ metronidazole for E histolytica
sides: GI, iodine-containing

15

Nitazoxanide

inhibits pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, required for anaerobic metabolism
giardia and cryptosporidium
sides: GI

16

Anti-nematode

Mebendazole, Albendazole, Thiabendazole, Pyrantel pamoate

17

Anti-fluke (trematode)

Praziquantel

18

Anti-tapeworm (cestode)

Praziquantel, Albendazole, Paromomycin Sulfate

19

Anti-malaria

Chloroquine, Mefloquine, Atovaquone+Proguanil, Quinine, Doxycycline, Primaquine

20

Anti-amebiasis

Metronidazole, Paromomycin Sulfate, Iodoquinol

21

Anti-other protozoal

Metronidazole, Atovaquone, Paromomycin sulfate, Nitazoxanide