Pharmacology - GI and Liver Flashcards Preview

Exam 2 - GI and Liver > Pharmacology - GI and Liver > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology - GI and Liver Deck (22):
1

What is contained within mast cells?

Histamine and 6 other cytotoxic factors:
serotonin, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, bradykinin, heparin, and chemotactic factors

2

Name (4) cells of the body that use histamine

mast cells
basophils
enterchromaffin-like (ECL) cells (fundus of stomach)
CNS

3

What effect do H1 (histamine) receptors have on the central nervous system?

H1 receptors affect the sleep/wake cycle and nausea

4

What is the primary action of the H2 receptor? How does it work?

Increases gastric acid release from parietal cells.

Histamine binds H2 -> activates adenylate cyclase -> induces protein kinases that-> activate the proton pump. Pumps out H+ ions into stomach.

5

Which histamine receptor is responsible for the wheal and flare response?

H1

6

Promethazine: class, uses, and important properties

-1st gen antihistamine
-Uses: anti-emetic or a sedative. Also used in combo w/ Benadryl for migraine relief
-Properties: Very strong anti-cholinergic and sedating

7

Levocetirizine: class, trade name, and use

-3rd gen antihistamine (Xyzal)
-Isomer of cetirizine w/ fewer side effects

8

Fexofenadine: class, trade name, and use

-2nd gen antihistamine (Allegra)
-Uses: Anti-allergy med w/ few side effects

9

Desloratidine: class, trade name, and use

-3rd gen antihistamine (Clarinex)
-Use: active metabolite of loratadine. Uncertain whether it is more effective

10

Meclizine: class and use

-1st gen antihistamine
-Uses: anti-emetic and tx vertigo

11

Diphenhydramine: class, trade name, and uses

-1st gen antihistamine (Benadryl)
-Uses: seasonal allergies and allergic rxns: anaphylaxis, urticaria, nausea, and can be used for sedating effect

12

Additional use of Diphenhydramine (beyond usual uses)

combat extrapyramidal side effects caused by other medications

13

Dimenhydrinate: class, trade name, and use

-1st gen antihistamine (Dramamine)
-Use: anti-emetic (motion sickness)

14

Loratadine: class, trade name, use, and important property

-2nd gen antihistamine (Claritin)
-Use: seasonal allergies, allergic rxns, and urticaria
-Less sedating than diphenhydramine

15

Chlorphenamine: class and use

-1st gen antihistamine
-Use: put in multi agent cold medication preparations

16

Hydroxyzine: class, trade name, and (3) uses

-1st gen antihistamine (Atarx, Vistaril)
-Uses: itching, sedation, and anti-anxiety

17

Cyproheptadine: class, trade name, and (3) uses

-1st gen antihistamine (Periactin)
-Uses: allergies, migraine, and appetite stimulant

18

Olopatadine: class, trade name, and use

-2nd gen antihistamine (Patanol)
-Use: eye drop for allergic conjunctivitis

19

Azelastine: class and use

-2nd gen antihistamine
-Use: mast cell stabilizer that is used as nasal spray or eye drop

20

Ketotifen: class, trade name, and use

-2nd gen antihistamine (Zatidor)
-Use: eye drop for allergic conjunctivitis

21

Cetirizine: class, trade name, and use

-2nd gen antihistamine (Zyrtec)
-Use: allergic rhinitis

22

Differences in dosing between Cetirizine and Diphenhydramine

Diphenhydramine = every 6-8 hrs

Cetirizine = once daily