Pharmacology Orientation and Scope Flashcards Preview

Neuro II Exam 1 > Pharmacology Orientation and Scope > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Orientation and Scope Deck (24):
1

Substance that brings about a change in biologic fx through is chemical action

Drug

2

Their role is to ensure drugs are proven safe and effective

FDA

3

This is converted to the active drug by biologic processes inside the body

Pro-drug

4

Field of study of the appropriate use of medications to effectively treat of prevent disease and manage symptoms

Pharmacotherapeutics

5

Field of study of genetic impact on drug metabolic or handling processes which can affect individual responses to drugs

Pharmacogenomics

6

Field of study utilizing scientific and economic methods to evaluate and compare value between therapies

Pharmacoeconomics

7

Field of study that applies epidemiological principles and methods to study the uses and effects of medications on large populations

Pharmacoepidemiology

8

For drugs to be considered pharmaceutically equivalent they must have what similar characteristics?

Same ingredients
Same dosage form/route
Same strength/concentration
Same standards for for quality/purity

9

What is the difference between therapeutic equivalence and bioequivalence?

Therapeutic: drugs must be pharmaceutically equivalent and have the same therapeutic/clinical effects and safety profile

Bioequivalence: similar rate and extent of absorption

10

What are A codes vs B codes when talking about the FDA code letter rating system for therapeutic equivalence?

A codes: drugs that are considered to be therapeutically equivalent to other pharmaceutically equivalent products

B codes: drugs that are NOT considered to be therapeutically equivalent to other pharmaceutically equivalent products

11

Mg= ___g
Mcg= ___ mg
mEq= ___ Eq
Kg= ___ lbs

Tsp= ___ ml
Tbsp= ___ ml
Oz= ___ ml
Ml/cc= ___ L
Quart= ____ ml
Pint= ___ ml
Liter= ____ ml
Gallon= ____ L

1/1000
1/1000
1/1000
2.2

5
15
30
1/1000
946
473
1000
3.79

12

Meds are designated into what two groups?

1. Over the counter with no prescription

2. Legend with prescription required: scheduled/controlled based on abuse potential/dose
Non-scheduled/non-controlled with no abuse potential

13

What is schedule 1 criteria?

Examples?

Drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Most dangerous with psychological or physical dependence

Heroin
LSD
Marijuana
Ecstasy
Methaqualone
Peyote

14

What is schedule 2 criteria?

Examples?

Drugs with a high potential for abuse leading to psychological or physical dependence

Vicodin (< 15 mg of hydrocodone)
Cocaine
Methamphetamine
Methadone
Dilaudid
Demerol
Oxycodone
Fentanyl
Dexedrine
Adderall
Ritalin

15

What is schedule 3 criteria?

Examples?

Drugs with moderate to low potential for physical and psychological dependence

Tylenol
Codeine
Ketamine
Anabolic steroids
Testosterone

16

What is schedule 4 criteria?

Examples?

Drugs with low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence

Xanax
Soma
Darvon
Darvocet
Valium
Ativan
Talwin
Ambien
Tramadol

17

What is schedule 5 criteria?

Examples?

Drugs with lower potential for abuse, limited amounts of narcotics, used for antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic purposes

Robitussin
Lomotil
Motofen
Lyrica
Parepectolin

18

What are the pregnancy categories used by the FDA?

Pregnancy: pregnancy exposure registry, risk summary, clinical considerations, data

Lactation: risk summary, clinical considerations, data

Females and males of reproductive potential: pregnancy testing, contraception, infertility

19

Q.d.
B.i.d.
T.i.d.
Q.i.d.
Q.o.d
Q.12h.
Q.a.m
Q.p.m.
Q.h.s.
P.r.n.
A.c.
P.c.

Every day
Twice daily
Three times daily
Four times daily
Every other day
Every 12 hours
Every morning
Every evening
Every night at bedtime
As needed
Before meals
After meals

20

Eyes:
O.d.
O.s.
O.u.

Ears:
A.d.
A.s.
A.u.

Gtt

Right eye
Left eye
Both eyes

Right ear
Left ear
Both ears

Drops

21

P.o.
S.l.

I.v.
I.m.
SQ
P.r.
NGT
OGT

By mouth
Sublingually

Intravenously
Intramuscularly
Subcutaneously
Per rectum
Naso-gastric tube
Oro-gastric tube

22

Cap
D
Exlir
G
Gr
Gt
H
Hs
Pil
Qh
Sig
Supp
T
Tab
U

Capsule
Day
Liquid or syrup
Gram
Grain
Drop
Hour
At bedtime
Pill
Every hour
Patient instructions
Suppository
One tablet
Tablet
Unit

23

Rept
Rx
Sid
Sos
Stat
Susp
Vag

a
Agit
Aq
Dil
Disp
Ext
IA
IVPB
No

May be repeated
Take
Once a day
If needed
At once
Suspension
Vaginal

Before
Shake
Water
Dissolve
Dispense
Extract
Intra-arterial
IV piggyback
Number

24

What is the dosage formula?

The amount of medication to give in one dose


(doctors order (D)/ supply on hand (H)) x quantity or form of medication (Q)