Phenomenal CNS infections microbiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Phenomenal CNS infections microbiology Deck (52)
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1

Is gonorrhoea gram negative or gram positive?

Gram negative diplococcus (2 kidney beans)

2

What organism could cause viral meningitis?

ECHO

3

Diagnosis of viral meningitis?

Viral stool culture
Throat swab
and CSF PCR

4

Treament for viral meningitis?

Supportive, generally self limiting

5

How quickly must you diagnose herpes simplex viral encephalitis?

Rapidly within 6 hours of admission

6

Treatment for herpes simplex encephalitis

Aciclovir high dose

7

How can you tell if someone has varicella zoster encephalitis? and how do you treat it?

They will have a history of shingles
-Treat with high dose aciclovir

8

Travel related causes of viral encephalitis

West nile
Japanese B encephalitis
Tick borne encephalitis

9

Prompt therapy for encephalitis?

If delay start pre-emptive aciclovir as prompt therapy improves outcomes [death]

10

Investigations for encephalitis

LP
EEG
MRI

11

Causes of bacterial meningitis in neonates?

Listeria
Group B strep
E. coli

12

Causes of bacterial meningitis in children

Haemophilus influenza

13

Causes of bacterial meningitis in adults

10 to 21: meningococcal
21 onward: pneumococcal >meningococcal

14

Causes of bacterial meningitis in elderly?

Pneumococcal > listeria

15

Type of bacterial meningitis in decreased immune system?

Listeria

16

Type of bacterial meningitis in neurosurgery/open head trauma

Staphylococcus
Gram Negative Rods
S. epidermidis

17

Bacterial causes of meningitis in CSF shunt

S. epidermidis
S. aureus
Areobic gram negative rods
Propionibacterium acnes

18

Bacteria causing meningitis in basilar skull fracture

S. pneumoniae
H. influenzae
beta-hemolytic strep group A.

19

Pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis

1) Nasopharyngeal colonization

2) Direct extension of bacteria.
Parameningeal foci (sinusitis, mastoiditis, or brain abscess)
Across skull defects/fracture

3) From remote foci of infection
(e.g., endocarditis, pneumonia, UTI…)

20

Bacteria found in the nose

Strep

21

Bacteria found in the throat

Neisseria
Haemophilus influenza

22

Which bacteria may be found in leukocytes in the CSF?

Neisseria

23

Military recruits are vaccinated with purified capsular polysaccharide to prevent what meningitis?

Neisseria Meningitis (Meningococcal meningitis)

24

What does h. influenzae require for growth?

Blood factors

25

How many types of h. influenzae are there?
What are they based on?
Which is the most common type?

There are six types of H.influenzae based on capsule differences.
H. influenzae type b is the most common cause of meningitis in children under 4 years old.

26

What vaccine is available for haemophilus influenza?

A conjugated vaccine directed at the capsular polysaccharide antigen

27

Where is s. pneumonia found?

In the nasopharynx

28

Hospitalized patients, patients with CSF skull fractures, diabetics/ alcoholics and young children are most susceptible to which meningitis?

S. pneumoniae meningitis

29

Appearance and stain of listeria?

Gram positive rod (LEARN !!)

30

Cryptococcal mainly found in HIV when CD4 count drops below ___

less than 100