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Flashcards in Philosophy Deck (17)
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1

Metaphysics

-The branch of philosophy that considers questions to do with nature and structure of reality
-Topics include: freedom of will, personal identity, and nature of space and time

2

Premise

-One of the claims an argument makes in order to support its conclusion

3

Sound

-When an argument is valid with true premises

4

Valid

-The truth of its conclusion follows from the truth of its premises
-If premises are all true, no way conclusion can be false

5

Dualism

-Any view that holds that there are two distinct kinds of things in some domain
-Ex: Mind/body dualism: mind is different kind of thing from physical world

6

Leibniz's law

-Two things are identical (one and the same) if they share all the same properties

7

Ability Knowledge

-"know-how"
-Knowing how to do something
-Ex: riding a bike or swimming
-Opposite: propositional knowledge, might know how to do something without having propositional knowledge

8

Propositional Knowledge

-Knowledge that something is the case
-Proposition: What is stated by a declarative sentence, that something is the case
-In order to have knowledge of a proposition, proposition must be true and believed

9

Classical Account of Knowledge

-Knowledge is defined as justified by true belief
-Plato
-Tripartite: three-part account of knowledge

10

Skeptical Hypothesis

-A scenario in which you are radically deceived about the world and yet your experience of the world is exactly as it would be had you not been deceived
-Problem: We seem unable to know they are false
-Motivate skepticism

11

Radical skepticism

-We do not know very much, particularly when it comes to our beliefs about the external world

12

Epistemology

-Theory of knowledge
*What is knowledge?

13

Philosophy

-Activity of working out the right way to think about things
-To understand: engage w/ philosophical problems, questions, and arguments

14

4 Noble Truths

1.There is suffering
2.There is the origin of suffering
3. Theres is the cessation of suffering
4.There is a path to the cessation of suffering
-suffering is not eternal, things don’t last forever
-We are impermanent and so is everything around us
-Not wise to develop attachment to things
-Need to develop observational patterns in order to pay attention to reality
-Mediation: time aside to pay attention to oneself

15

The 5 Skandhas

1.Physical form
2.Feelings
3.Perceptions
4.Mind formations
5.Consciousness

16

Engaged Buddism

1.Buddhists who are seeking ways to apply the insights from meditation practice and dharma teachings to situations of social, political, environmental, and economic suffering and injustice
2. Watering the seeds of justice every day
3.Founded by Thich Nhat Hanh

17

Anthropocentrism

-humans are the pinnacle of evolution