Flashcards in Philosophy, Test 1 Deck (48):
What is philosophy?
Love of wisdom
Why should we care about philosophy?
To enrich lives and the world understanding
To confront deeper questions of world mad life
What are the qualities of critically thinking?
What is "having" a philosophy?
A collection of beliefs used to guide his/her thoughts and actions
What is doing philosophy?
Thinking critically and examining
What were Bertrand Russell's thoughts on the value of philosophy?
Everything has value
Examining one's life for questions if it brings it up
What is a premise?
Statements that support a conclusion
What is a conclusion?
Statement that receives support from premises
What type of argument moves from a specific premise to a general conclusion?
What are deductive arguments?
Statements that move from a general premise to a specific conclusion
What are the branches of philosophy?
Political and social
What is the study of ultimate characteristics of reality/experience?
________is the study of knowledge for what we know and why we know it.
What are ethics?
The study of moral values and principles
_______________ is the study of social values and political forms of government.
Political and social philosophy
What are aesthetics?
The study of beauty, art, and taste
______________seeks to establish the rules of correct reasoning, clear understanding, and arguments.
What is irony?
Form of rhetoric that has at least two conflicting meanings
What is dialectic?
Dynamic exchange or method of contradiction
What method uses dynamic questions and intellectual analysis?
The Socratic Method
What are the types of fallacies?
What fallacies is when someone jumps to conclusions too soon/quickly?
What is causal fallacies?
The state of attributing causes to events and situations
What are the fallacies of relevance?
Arguments that appeal for support to factors that have little or nothing to do with the argument being offered
What did the Pre-socratics say?
If the gods can't agree then how do we know the answer was true?
What did Thales believe?
That the primal element of the universe was water
Who suggested that the primal element of the universe was air?
What did Heraclitus believe?
That the primal element of the universe was fire because "all change"
Who believed that the world of change is an illusion and that reality is unchanging and eternal?
What were some of the core teachings of Socrates?
The unexamined life is not worth living
Truth lies within each of us
We should strive for excellence in all areas of life
No one knowingly does evil
It's better to suffer wickedness than to commit it
What did people in the Humeric Way believe?
Before philosophy myths provided explanations of natural phenomena for ancient Greeks
________ focuses on myths and gods by using the method of interpreting the gods?
Natural Turn focuses on __________ by using the method of reason and observation.
The Socratic turn focuses on the soul/self by using the method ____________.
Question and answer format
Why was Socrates' death important?
He thought it was better to die virtuously than to admit to an untruth.
He was still examining his life (philosophizing) as he was being sentenced.
He didn't think death can be proven to be "bad."
Socrates is known as the ___________ of western philosophy.
What are the 9 steps of the critical thinking process?
Define the issues
Illustrate your meaning with examples
Explore origins of your position
Identify your assumptions
Support your point of view
Consider other points of view
Arrive at a conclusion
Consider the consequences
How do you make an initial statement of the critical thinking process?
Give a statement of how you feel about the certain topic
How do you define the issue in the critical thinking process?
Start with from my point of view, the concept of _________ means __________.
How would you illustrate an example of your meaning in the critical thinking process?
Generalize all of your personal examples and ideas
How do you define "exploring origins of your position" on the critical thinking process?
Find out where your point if view started? Have you always had this same point of view?
How would you identify your assumptions in the critical thinking process?
Give all the assumptions that you have that follow your position
Next you should support your view in the critical thinking process. How would you do this?
Give facts about your position and explain how the facts were obtained
Why should we consider other points of view on our position while evaluating the critical thinking process?
To show that we are knowledgeable in our stance on the position that we are holding. By looking at the other points from the other side we can have a better idea why we are standing on the side of the position that we chose
What do you do when you arrive at a conclusion in the critical thinking process?
Determine whether we can make free choices and if we have clearly debated our point of view on the subject matter
The last step in the critical thinking process is to consider the consequences. How would we do this?
This conclusion is what is likely to happen if our thought of this position is adopted
How did the Sophists compare to Socrates?
Didn't want money for teaching people
Didn't claim that he made people wiser
Believe in universal
Received money for teaching people
Claimed they made people wiser