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Flashcards in Physical Chemistry Deck (36):
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Arrhenius acid

H* ions in water

1

Arrhenius alkali

OH– ions in water

2

Problem with Arrhenius definition

HCl + NH3 --> NH4Cl
Neutralisation reaction
But neither HCl is an acid by this definition or NH3 a base

3

Brønstead-Lowry theory

Acid= H* donor
Alkali= H* acceptor

4

Metal + acid

Salt + hydrogen

5

Metal oxide

Base

6

Metal oxide + acid

Salt + water

7

Metal hydroxide

Alkali

8

Metal hydroxide + acid

Salt + water

9

Metal carbonate + acid

Salt + water + carbon dioxide

10

Ammonia + acid

Salt

11

Nitric acid

HNO3
Nitrate

12

Hydrochloride acid

HCl
Chloride

13

Sulphuric acid

H2SO4
Sulphate

14

Carbonic acid

H2CO3

15

Making salts

NEUTRALISATION REACTION
1. Carbonate = bubbling (heat to get rid of all acid) then excess carbonate filtered off.
2. Base = insoluble but no bubbles so add an excess of base.
3. Alkali = ?
Indicator then remove with decolourising charcoal
Titration

16

Calorimity

Uses changes in water temp to calculate the energy change

17

Delta H=

m x 4.2 x change in temp (delta t)

18

To compare delta H

Delta H divided by moles

19

Delta H converted to joules per gram

Delta H divided by mass of solid dissolved

20

Delta H converted to joules per mole

Delta H divided by moles of solid dissolved

21

Salts of sodium

Soluble

22

Salts of potassium

Soluble

23

Salts of ammonium

Soluble

24

Nitrates

Soluble

25

Chlorides

Soluble

26

Silver chloride

Insoluble

27

Sulfates

Soluble

28

Barium sulfate

Insoluble

29

Calcium sulfate

Insoluble

30

2 insoluble sulfates

Barium
Calcium

31

Carbonates

Insoluble

32

Sodium carbonate

Soluble

33

Potassium carbonate

Soluble

34

Ammonium carbonate

Soluble

35

3 soluble carbonates

Sodium
Potassium
Ammonium