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Veterinary Science 1 > Physical Exam & Behavior > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physical Exam & Behavior Deck (94):
1

Normal Temp for Cats/Dogs

100.5 F to 102.5 F

2

Hyperthermia

104 F and higher

3

Causes of Hyperthermia

- Diseases
- Neurological injury (stroke)
- Heat Stroke
- Drug toxicity

4

Hyperthermia Results in

- Increased tissue O2 reqs
- Vasodilation to release body heat
- Cardiac workload increases
- Damage to vascular cells leading to DIC
- Bounding pulse, tachycardia, & pale gums (slow refill)

5

Interventions for Hyperthermia

- Cool compress
- Cool w/ fan
- Temperate bath
- Room temp IV fluids
- Cool water enemas

6

Don't use for Hyperthermia

Ice water, it can cause vasoconstriction which will trap heat in the body, don't want to cool down too fast

7

Hypothermia

99 F or less

8

Causes of Hypothermia

- Medication (anesthesia)
- Age (less than 1 month old)
- Environment (left in snow)

9

Hypothermia results in

- reduced metabolic rate
- decreased O2 consumption (slower breathing)
- decreased ability of hemoglobin to release O2 to tissue
- peripheral vasconstriction
- decreased heart rate
- hypotension (low blood pressure)
- decreased GI motility

10

Interventions for Hypothermia

- warm blankets
- warm water bottles/gloves
- warm IV fluids
- heat lamps (watch animal closely)
- circulating water blanket

11

Don't use for Hypothermia

- heating pads
- stationary heating elements
(get too hot and can cause burns)

12

Pulse

A palpable rhythmic expansion of an artery due to contraction of the heart

13

Normal pulse for adult dogs

60-160 bpm

14

Normal pulse for Toy breeds

60-180 bpm

15

Normal pulse for puppies

up to 220 bpm

16

Normal pulse for cats

110-220 bpm (not unusual to be higher at the vet, cat's stressed)

17

Where/how is the pulse taken

The usual site is at the femoral artery, count for 15 secs and times by 4 to get bpm (beats per minute)

18

Thready Pulse

weak pulse that can be a sign of shock of cardiopulmonary dz

19

Bounding Pulse

overly strong pulse that can be a sign of stress, pain, or cardiopulmonary dz

20

Bradycardia

Slow heart rate; decrease in cardiac output can cause organ failure or death

21

Causes of Bradycardia

- hypothermia
- metabolic diseases
- medications
- hypothroidism

22

Interventions for Bradycardia

- ECG
- Thoracic Radiograph for Dx
- Supplement w/ O2
- Chemical (atropine or epinephrine)

23

Tachycardia

Fast heart rate; can lead to permanent heart arrhythmia, murmurs, or cardiac failure

24

Causes of Tachycardia

- pain
- shock
- stress
- excitement
- febrile (fever)
- medications

25

Interventions for Tachycardia

- find the underlying cause
- treat the cause appropriately

26

How is respiration measured?

Watch the chest for expansion & contraction for 15 sec x by 4 for rpm (respirations per minute)
Do first for TPR

27

Normal Resp Rate for Cats:

20-30 rpm

28

Normal Resp Rate for Dogs:

15-30 rpm

29

How is panting recorded?

Considered normal in dogs, note if labor
Not normal in cats

30

Tachypnea

Rapid, shallow breathing

31

Causes of Tachypnea

- obstruction
- pain
- stress
-pulmonary dz
- hyperthermia
- shock
- seen in animals w/ pneumothorax/hemothorax

32

Interventions for Tachypnea

- minimize/decrease stress
- administer O2
- treat shock
- cool temp

33

If there is an obstruction in the upper airway:

- palpate for object
- radiographs to locate if not palpable
- might need to sedate
- remove obstruction

34

Dyspnea

Difficulty breathing

35

Causes of Dyspnea

- restricted airway
- pneumothorax
- pleural effusion
- upper airway dz (laryngeal paralysis/obstruction)
- lower airway dz (bronchitis, kennel cough)
- diaphragmatic hernia
- CHF (congestive heart failure)
- obesity
- pulmonary dz

36

Interventions for Dyspnea

- administer O2
- IVF
- Chest radiographs

37

Weight should be taken daily because:

it's important for medication calculations & hydration state

38

To convert lbs to kgs:

divide lbs by 2.2 to get kgs and round to 10th place

39

MM

Mucous Membrane

40

Gingival

Gums (most common mucous membrane to check)

41

Conjunctiva

Mucous membrane of the eye

42

Normal MM color is

Pink (light bubble gum pink)

43

Abnormal MM colors

- Cyanotic
- Jaundice/Icteric
- Pale/White
- Erythemic/Hyperemic

44

CRT is

Capillary refill time

45

Normal CRT is

46

To obtain CRT:

Push on gums till they turn white, let go, & count

47

Prolonged CRT is recorded as:

>2 secs

48

Prolonged CRT Causes:

- dehydration
- cardiac dz
- shock

49

If gums are pale or cyanotic w/ prolonged CRT:

Notify vet and administer O2

50

Treatment for CRT:

- measure blood pressure
- ECG
- PCV
- administer fluids

51

Ausculation

Listening to sound within the body w/ means of amplification

52

What two systems is ausculation performed on for small animals?

Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems

53

Bell of stethoscope

smaller curved side, used for GI sounds or neonates

54

Diaphragm of stethoscope

large side, used for listening to cardiovascular or respiratory system

55

Where is the heart listened to?

Left side of the thorax, behind the elbow

56

What is recorded when listening to the heart?

Heart rate and quality
Count for 15 sec x 4

57

Murmurs

abnormal heart sound generated by blood flow through the heart
murmurs are graded I-VI (by Dr.)

58

Murmurs indicated:

- cardiac dz
- dehydration
- over hydration

59

Arrhythmias

abnormal heart rhythm (can be heard on ausculation or ECG)

60

"Normal" Sinus Arrhythmia

- irregularity due to respiratory cycle
- increases on inspiration, decreases on expiration
- more pronounced under anesthesia
- non pathogenic

61

Pulse Deficit

difference between heart rate and palpable pulse

62

Causes of Pulse Deficit

- lack of circulation
- heart dz

63

Normal lung sounds:

- nothing or slight air movement
- includes both sides of the chest & trachea
- check for breath quality

64

Stridor

high pitched sound heard on inspiration

65

Stridor can indicate:

something stuck in the throat (upper airway)

66

Crackles

sound like rice crispies, pops & crackles, happens near the end of breathing pattern

67

Rales

crackling, bubbling sound, happens through out the breathing pattern

68

Crackles can indicate:

- asthma
- bronchitis
- pneumonia

69

Rales can indicate:

- bronchitis
- asthma
- pneumonia

70

Bronchi

rattling or snoring sound

71

Bronchi can indicate:

- bronchitis
- asthma
- pneumonia

72

Palpation

Feeling the outside surfaces of the body, to look for tumors, wound, bumps, foreign bodies

73

Palpation of eyes

look for redness
pupils - same size
discharge - one or both eyes
pupilary light reflex

74

Palpation of ears

look for smells/odors
inflamation of pinna
mites (common in cats)
hemtomas

75

Palpation of nose

blood
pus
foamy or clear discharge

76

Palpation of mouth

sores, tumors, teeth, gums, tongue, halatosis

77

Palpation of neck

look for alopecia, hot spots, cervical pain, lymphnodes, lumps & bumps

78

Palpation of extremities (limbs/tail)

look at paws for redness, check nails, check for burrs between toes

79

Palpation of chest/thorax

is hair/coat dry/oily/flaky/dull
alopecia
parasites

80

Palpation of abdomen

check for pain/lumps

81

Palpation of lymph nodes

usually shouldn't feel them

82

Name/location of 5 lymph nodes

submandibular (under chin)
popliteal (back leg above hock)
prescapular (above front leg, near scapula)
axillary (in armpit of front leg)
inguinal (where back leg meets body, near femoral vein)

83

Palpation of reproductive areas

cryptorchid, extrude penis (does it extrude)
vulva - redness, discharge
puppies
vaginitis (from over chewing)
pyometra (pus in uterus)

84

CVTs need to understand behavior:

- safety of self, vet, owner, animal
- is behavior medical issue or behavioral issue
- client education
- animal advocacy, why behavior is occurring & what it means

85

What are the 5 senses:

sight, sound, taste, smell, touch

86

What sense is most important to dogs/cats for communication?

touch

87

Define Ethology

study of animal behavior in a natural setting

88

Animal behaviorist is:

someone who studies how animals behave & trys to determine what causes certain behavior & what factors prompt behavior changes

89

Anthromorphism is:

attributing human characteristics to anything but humans

90

Factors that influence behavior:

maternal status
owner's lifestyle
environmental changes
gender
age
health status

91

Agonistic behavior is:

the way an animal reacts to a situation perceived as conflict, choices made when responding to these challenges

92

4 ways animals react to conflict:

escape, submissive/appeasement, threatening, aggression

93

9 types of aggression:

fear, pain-elicited, dominance, territorial, possessive, maternal, protective, predatory, inter-male/female

94

Types of aggression that are normal behavior:

territorial & maternal