Flashcards in Physics and Chemistry Deck (54):

1

## Alpha decay

### An alpha particle, containing two protons, two neutrons, and a +2 charge, is emitted

2

## beta-minus decay

### neutron is converted into a proton in the nucleus, and a beta-minus particle (an electron) is emitted

3

## beta-plus decay

### a proton is converted into a neutron, and a B+ particle (a positron) is emitted to preserve the charge

4

## Gamma decay

### involves the emission of a gamma ray (a high energy photon), from an excited nucleus

5

## electron capture (positron decay)

### a nucleus "grabs" an electron, which changes a proton into a neutron

6

## The resulting Xe-131 + e- from an I-131 is a product of what type of decay?

### beta-minus decay

7

## To calculate the specific rotation of a chiral compound, what equation do you use?

###
[alpha] = alpha/cl

alpha: observed rotation

c: concentration in g/mL

l: length of the polarimeter tube in decimeters

8

## what is the goal of titration

###
to use known volumes/concentrations to determine unknown volumes/concentrations

e.g., using known concentration of NaOH to an analyte (unknown solution)

9

## What equation is generally used for titration?

### M1V1=M2V2

10

## If a cell is placed in an environment that contains a higher concentration of solutes than the interior of the cell, what would this environment be called?

### hypertonic

11

## When a cell is exposed to a hypotonic environment, what happens?

### Since the environment has lower solute concentration than the cell, water will travel into the cell, causing swelling and even lyses (bursts)

12

## define boiling point

### the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a solution is equal to the atmospheric pressure

13

## Adding salt to water causes the boiling point of water to:

### increase, requiring a greater average kinetic energy of the liquid to produce a vapor pressure equal to the external pressure

14

## the molecular formula for sulfate

### SO4^2-

15

## the molecular formula for sulfite

### SO3^2-

16

## equation for torque

### Fdsin(theta)

17

## equation for work

### Fdcos(theta)

18

## Vmax unchanged, Km increases

### competitive inhibitor

19

## Vmax decreases, Km unchanged

### noncompetitive inhibitor

20

## Vmax and Km decreases

### uncompetitive inhibitor

21

## ideal gas law

###
PV = nRT

T is in Kelvin

R is gas constant, don't memorize

22

## equation for power

###
P=IV

P=(I^2)R

P=(V^2)/R

V is voltage, R is resistance

unit: W

23

## Ohm's law

###
V=IR

for circuits

24

## Equation for resistors in series

###
I(tot) = I(1) = I(2) = ...

V(tot) = V(1) + V(2) + ...

R(tot) = R(1) + R(2) + ...

25

## equation for resistors in parallel

###
I(tot) = I(1) + I(2) + ...

V(tot) = V(1) = V(2) = ...

1/R(tot) = 1/R(1) + 1/R(2) + ...

26

## general equation for capacitors

### Q = VC

27

## equation for capacitors in series

### 1/C(tot) = 1/C(1) + 1/C(2) + ...

28

## equation for capacitors in parallel

### C(tot) = C(1) + C(2) + ...

29

## what is a reducing agent capable of reducing an aldehyde to a primary alcohol?

###
LiAlH4

mild and strong reducing agents also work

30

## what is a catalytic agent capable of reducing an aldehyde to an alkane?

### H2 with Pd

31

## what is an example of a catalytic agent that would oxidize a primary alcohol to a carboxylic acid

### strong oxidizing agents like NaCr2O7

32

## What is an example of a weak reducing agent?

### NaBH4

33

## what does aldosterone, a steroid hormone, regulate?

### fluid and salt levels

34

## what does cortisol, a steroid hormone, affect?

### blood glucose levels as part of the long-term stress response

35

## What are the 3 S's that indicate the functions of steroid hormones?

### sex, salt, sugar

36

## What range would you see a peak in an IR spectroscopy if there is a carbonyl C=O present in a compound (aldehyde or ketone)

### 1700-1750 cm-1 region

37

## What range would you see a peak in an IR spectroscopy for an OH group?

### 3200-3500 cm-1 region

38

## Greater (more positive) reduction potentials (greater than 0V) indicate what?

### that the substance "wants" to be reduced more

39

## Smaller (more negative) reduction potentials indicate what?

### that a substance is not prone to reduction

40

## what is the reduction half-reaction for silver?

### Ag+ + e- --> Ag

41

## Describe the electron transport chain reduction potential properties?

###
electrons are passed from species with less positive reduction potential to those with more positive reduction potential

Since O2 is the final electron acceptor of the ETC, it must possess a standard reduction potential more positive than any other acceptor in chain (so the voltage must be the most positive)

42

## Define E(cell)

### E(cell) = E°(cat) - E°(an)

43

##
Spontaneity is equivalent to:

∆G ? 0

K(eq) ? 1

E° ? 0

###
∆G < 0

K(eq) > 1

E° > 0

44

## Snell's Law

###
n1sin(θ1) = n2sin(θ2)

θ is defined with reference to the normal

45

## index of refraction

###
n = c/v(material)

c is speed of light

v is velocity

46

## What does the Le Chatelier's principle state

### If an equilibrium mixture is disrupted, it will shift to favor the direction of the reaction that best facilitates a return to equilibrium

47

## Hess's Law

### ΔHrxn = Σ∆Hproducts - ΣΔHreactants

48

## Determining spontaneity using enthalpy and entropy equation:

### ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

49

## p value

###
expresses statistical significance (express likelihood of a certain result being due to chance given a certain null hypothesis)

A p value <0.05 = less than 5% chance of the observed relationship being due to chance (statistically significant)

50

## null hypothesis

### refers to the absence of a relationship between the variables of interest

51

## what are capacitors used for

### used to store charge and electrical potential energy

52

## Capacitance equation

###
C = ɛ0A/d

A = area of plates, d = distance between plates

53

## what is the equation for the electrical potential energy stored in the capacitor?

### E = ½ QV = ½ CV2

54