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1

Alpha decay

An alpha particle, containing two protons, two neutrons, and a +2 charge, is emitted

2

beta-minus decay

neutron is converted into a proton in the nucleus, and a beta-minus particle (an electron) is emitted

3

beta-plus decay

a proton is converted into a neutron, and a B+ particle (a positron) is emitted to preserve the charge

4

Gamma decay

involves the emission of a gamma ray (a high energy photon), from an excited nucleus

5

electron capture (positron decay)

a nucleus "grabs" an electron, which changes a proton into a neutron

6

The resulting Xe-131 + e- from an I-131 is a product of what type of decay?

beta-minus decay

7

To calculate the specific rotation of a chiral compound, what equation do you use?

[alpha] = alpha/cl

alpha: observed rotation
c: concentration in g/mL
l: length of the polarimeter tube in decimeters

8

what is the goal of titration

to use known volumes/concentrations to determine unknown volumes/concentrations

e.g., using known concentration of NaOH to an analyte (unknown solution)

9

What equation is generally used for titration?

M1V1=M2V2

10

If a cell is placed in an environment that contains a higher concentration of solutes than the interior of the cell, what would this environment be called?

hypertonic

11

When a cell is exposed to a hypotonic environment, what happens?

Since the environment has lower solute concentration than the cell, water will travel into the cell, causing swelling and even lyses (bursts)

12

define boiling point

the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a solution is equal to the atmospheric pressure

13

Adding salt to water causes the boiling point of water to:

increase, requiring a greater average kinetic energy of the liquid to produce a vapor pressure equal to the external pressure

14

the molecular formula for sulfate

SO4^2-

15

the molecular formula for sulfite

SO3^2-

16

equation for torque

Fdsin(theta)

17

equation for work

Fdcos(theta)

18

Vmax unchanged, Km increases

competitive inhibitor

19

Vmax decreases, Km unchanged

noncompetitive inhibitor

20

Vmax and Km decreases

uncompetitive inhibitor

21

ideal gas law

PV = nRT

T is in Kelvin
R is gas constant, don't memorize

22

equation for power

P=IV
P=(I^2)R
P=(V^2)/R

V is voltage, R is resistance

unit: W

23

Ohm's law

V=IR
for circuits

24

Equation for resistors in series

I(tot) = I(1) = I(2) = ...
V(tot) = V(1) + V(2) + ...
R(tot) = R(1) + R(2) + ...

25

equation for resistors in parallel

I(tot) = I(1) + I(2) + ...
V(tot) = V(1) = V(2) = ...
1/R(tot) = 1/R(1) + 1/R(2) + ...

26

general equation for capacitors

Q = VC

27

equation for capacitors in series

1/C(tot) = 1/C(1) + 1/C(2) + ...

28

equation for capacitors in parallel

C(tot) = C(1) + C(2) + ...

29

what is a reducing agent capable of reducing an aldehyde to a primary alcohol?

LiAlH4

mild and strong reducing agents also work

30

what is a catalytic agent capable of reducing an aldehyde to an alkane?

H2 with Pd

31

what is an example of a catalytic agent that would oxidize a primary alcohol to a carboxylic acid

strong oxidizing agents like NaCr2O7

32

What is an example of a weak reducing agent?

NaBH4

33

what does aldosterone, a steroid hormone, regulate?

fluid and salt levels

34

what does cortisol, a steroid hormone, affect?

blood glucose levels as part of the long-term stress response

35

What are the 3 S's that indicate the functions of steroid hormones?

sex, salt, sugar

36

What range would you see a peak in an IR spectroscopy if there is a carbonyl C=O present in a compound (aldehyde or ketone)

1700-1750 cm-1 region

37

What range would you see a peak in an IR spectroscopy for an OH group?

3200-3500 cm-1 region

38

Greater (more positive) reduction potentials (greater than 0V) indicate what?

that the substance "wants" to be reduced more

39

Smaller (more negative) reduction potentials indicate what?

that a substance is not prone to reduction

40

what is the reduction half-reaction for silver?

Ag+ + e- --> Ag

41

Describe the electron transport chain reduction potential properties?

electrons are passed from species with less positive reduction potential to those with more positive reduction potential

Since O2 is the final electron acceptor of the ETC, it must possess a standard reduction potential more positive than any other acceptor in chain (so the voltage must be the most positive)

42

Define E(cell)

E(cell) = E°(cat) - E°(an)

43

Spontaneity is equivalent to:
∆G ? 0
K(eq) ? 1
E° ? 0

∆G < 0
K(eq) > 1
E° > 0

44

Snell's Law

n1sin(θ1) = n2sin(θ2)

θ is defined with reference to the normal

45

index of refraction

n = c/v(material)

c is speed of light
v is velocity

46

What does the Le Chatelier's principle state

If an equilibrium mixture is disrupted, it will shift to favor the direction of the reaction that best facilitates a return to equilibrium

47

Hess's Law

ΔHrxn = Σ∆Hproducts - ΣΔHreactants

48

Determining spontaneity using enthalpy and entropy equation:

ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

49

p value

expresses statistical significance (express likelihood of a certain result being due to chance given a certain null hypothesis)

A p value <0.05 = less than 5% chance of the observed relationship being due to chance (statistically significant)

50

null hypothesis

refers to the absence of a relationship between the variables of interest

51

what are capacitors used for

used to store charge and electrical potential energy

52

Capacitance equation

C = ɛ0A/d

A = area of plates, d = distance between plates

53

what is the equation for the electrical potential energy stored in the capacitor?

E = ½ QV = ½ CV2

54

What equation relates charge, capacitance, and voltage?

Q = VC