Flashcards in Physics and Chemistry Deck (54):
An alpha particle, containing two protons, two neutrons, and a +2 charge, is emitted
neutron is converted into a proton in the nucleus, and a beta-minus particle (an electron) is emitted
a proton is converted into a neutron, and a B+ particle (a positron) is emitted to preserve the charge
involves the emission of a gamma ray (a high energy photon), from an excited nucleus
electron capture (positron decay)
a nucleus "grabs" an electron, which changes a proton into a neutron
The resulting Xe-131 + e- from an I-131 is a product of what type of decay?
To calculate the specific rotation of a chiral compound, what equation do you use?
[alpha] = alpha/cl
alpha: observed rotation
c: concentration in g/mL
l: length of the polarimeter tube in decimeters
what is the goal of titration
to use known volumes/concentrations to determine unknown volumes/concentrations
e.g., using known concentration of NaOH to an analyte (unknown solution)
What equation is generally used for titration?
If a cell is placed in an environment that contains a higher concentration of solutes than the interior of the cell, what would this environment be called?
When a cell is exposed to a hypotonic environment, what happens?
Since the environment has lower solute concentration than the cell, water will travel into the cell, causing swelling and even lyses (bursts)
define boiling point
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a solution is equal to the atmospheric pressure
Adding salt to water causes the boiling point of water to:
increase, requiring a greater average kinetic energy of the liquid to produce a vapor pressure equal to the external pressure
the molecular formula for sulfate
the molecular formula for sulfite
equation for torque
equation for work
Vmax unchanged, Km increases
Vmax decreases, Km unchanged
Vmax and Km decreases
ideal gas law
PV = nRT
T is in Kelvin
R is gas constant, don't memorize
equation for power
V is voltage, R is resistance
Equation for resistors in series
I(tot) = I(1) = I(2) = ...
V(tot) = V(1) + V(2) + ...
R(tot) = R(1) + R(2) + ...
equation for resistors in parallel
I(tot) = I(1) + I(2) + ...
V(tot) = V(1) = V(2) = ...
1/R(tot) = 1/R(1) + 1/R(2) + ...
general equation for capacitors
Q = VC
equation for capacitors in series
1/C(tot) = 1/C(1) + 1/C(2) + ...
equation for capacitors in parallel
C(tot) = C(1) + C(2) + ...
what is a reducing agent capable of reducing an aldehyde to a primary alcohol?
mild and strong reducing agents also work
what is a catalytic agent capable of reducing an aldehyde to an alkane?
H2 with Pd
what is an example of a catalytic agent that would oxidize a primary alcohol to a carboxylic acid
strong oxidizing agents like NaCr2O7
What is an example of a weak reducing agent?
what does aldosterone, a steroid hormone, regulate?
fluid and salt levels
what does cortisol, a steroid hormone, affect?
blood glucose levels as part of the long-term stress response
What are the 3 S's that indicate the functions of steroid hormones?
sex, salt, sugar
What range would you see a peak in an IR spectroscopy if there is a carbonyl C=O present in a compound (aldehyde or ketone)
1700-1750 cm-1 region
What range would you see a peak in an IR spectroscopy for an OH group?
3200-3500 cm-1 region
Greater (more positive) reduction potentials (greater than 0V) indicate what?
that the substance "wants" to be reduced more
Smaller (more negative) reduction potentials indicate what?
that a substance is not prone to reduction
what is the reduction half-reaction for silver?
Ag+ + e- --> Ag
Describe the electron transport chain reduction potential properties?
electrons are passed from species with less positive reduction potential to those with more positive reduction potential
Since O2 is the final electron acceptor of the ETC, it must possess a standard reduction potential more positive than any other acceptor in chain (so the voltage must be the most positive)
E(cell) = E°(cat) - E°(an)
Spontaneity is equivalent to:
∆G ? 0
K(eq) ? 1
E° ? 0
∆G < 0
K(eq) > 1
E° > 0
n1sin(θ1) = n2sin(θ2)
θ is defined with reference to the normal
index of refraction
n = c/v(material)
c is speed of light
v is velocity
What does the Le Chatelier's principle state
If an equilibrium mixture is disrupted, it will shift to favor the direction of the reaction that best facilitates a return to equilibrium
ΔHrxn = Σ∆Hproducts - ΣΔHreactants
Determining spontaneity using enthalpy and entropy equation:
ΔG = ΔH - TΔS
expresses statistical significance (express likelihood of a certain result being due to chance given a certain null hypothesis)
A p value <0.05 = less than 5% chance of the observed relationship being due to chance (statistically significant)
refers to the absence of a relationship between the variables of interest
what are capacitors used for
used to store charge and electrical potential energy
C = ɛ0A/d
A = area of plates, d = distance between plates
what is the equation for the electrical potential energy stored in the capacitor?
E = ½ QV = ½ CV2