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Flashcards in Physiology 2 Deck (72):
1

Passage of air

1) 2 external openings (nasal & mouth)
2) down trachea
3) splits into 2 bronchi
4) bronchioles in lungs
5) alveoli

2

How’s the trachea adapted to its function?

It’s kept open by rings of cartilage to protect it and lined with cilia that wafts pathogens away.

3

How are lungs optimised for gas exchange?

Large and spongey

4

How thin are bronchioles?

1 mm thick

5

How are alveoli adapted for gas exchange?

Large surface area and blood supply, thin walls & moisture

6

Gas exchange

Process of diffusion and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide into the blood and lungs

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Alveoli features

Very small w large numbers, large surface area, network of capillaries, large blood supply, moisture, thin walls

8

Haemoglobin

Protein/ red pigment allowing transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide

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Oxyhaemoglobin

Haemoglobin in the presence of oxygen

10

Inspiration

Breathing in

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Expiration

Breathing out

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What breathing involves

Ribs, intercostal muscles, diaphragm

13

What happens during inspiration

Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract pushing the ribs up and out, low air pressure

14

What happens during expiration?

Intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax pulling the ribs lower and the making the chest cavity smaller raising air pressure

15

Inspiration during exercise

Assisted by the sternocleidomastoid and pectorals to raise the sternum and so expand the lungs

16

Expiration during exercise

Assisted by abdominals to force air out of lungs

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Tidal volume

Volume of air breathed in or out at normal breath (up to 500ml)

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Expiratory reserve volume

Additional amount of air expired from the lungs at normal breath

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Inspiratory reserve volume

Additional amount of air inspired at resting breath

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Residual volume

Volume of air left in the lungs after fully breathing out.

21

Vital capacity

Maximum volume of air breathed in or out.

22

Name of redistribution of blood flow

Vascular shunt

23

Vasodilation

Increase in diameter of artery to increase blood flow and decrease pressure.

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Vasoconstriction

Decrease in diameter of artery to decrease blood flow and increase pressure

25

Arteries blood flow direction

AWAY from heart

26

Arteries carry which type of blood?

Oxygenated (apart from pulmonary)

27

Which blood vessel has a pulse?

Artery

28

Characteristics of an artery

Thick muscular wall, small lumen, high pressure

29

Size of capillaries

1 cell thick wall

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What type of blood do capillaries carry?

Oxygenated AND deoxygenated as they link arteries and veins

31

Purpose of capillaries

Linking of arteries and veins & rapid diffusion of substances in and out of blood due to their thin walls and lumen carrying 1 red blood cell at a time

32

What type of blood do veins carry?

Deoxygenated blood

33

Pressure in a vein

Low (no pulse)

34

Characteristics of veins

Thin walled, large lumen and valves to prevent clotting or pooling

35

1 contraction of heart + 1 relaxation of heart =

1 heartbeat

36

Heartrate

Number of times your heart beats a minute (bpm)

37

Function of valves

Prevent backflow

38

What fills with blood first in the heart? Atria or ventricles?

Atria fill with blood before pumping into ventricles

39

Passage of blood from lungs to heart?

Veins carry oxygenated blood to heart and into pulmonary vein.

40

Heart to muscle tissue blood flow?

Blood flows from left atrium into left ventricle through the mitral valve. Then flows through aorta to muscles.

41

Muscle tissue to heart blood flow?

Veins carry deoxygenated blood into heart via vena cava into right atrium.

42

Heart to lungs blood flow?

Flows through tricuspid valve to right ventricle before leaving through pulmonary artery

43

Diastole

Heart filling with blood and relaxed

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Systole

Heart emptying blood and contracted

45

Cardiac output (Q) (Measured in L per min)

Stroke volume (ml)* heart rate

46

Stroke volume

Volume of blood pumped from left ventricle per minute

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Maximum HR

220- your age

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Anticipatory rise

Spike in HR prior to exercise due to adrenaline

49

Optimum cardiac output

Plateau of HR during exercise due to reaching maximal cardiac output.

50

Aerobic exercise

Relies on energy produced in presence of oxygen

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Anaerobic exercise

Relies on energy produced without oxygen supply and so producing lactic acid as byproduct.

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Aerobic equation

Glucose + oxygen > energy + carbon dioxide + water

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Example of aerobic activity

Yoga (low intensity & long duration)

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Anaerobic equation

Glucose> energy + lactic acid

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Example of anaerobic activity

Sprinting as is high intensity and short duration

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EPOC stands for ...?

Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption

57

Oxygen debt

Temporary oxygen shortage in the body due to strenuous exercise

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EPOC

Rapid & heavy intake of oxygen to repay oxygen debt

59

What’s a cool down?

Allowing physiological activity to return to normal gradually after strenuous exercise

60

Positives of cool down

Returns HR/breathing return to normal gradually, avoids fainting & dizziness, prevents blood pooling, lactic acid & DOMs, cools temp, .

61

Negative of cool down

Takes 5-10mins of time

62

What’s stretching?

Physical exercise in which a specific muscle/ tendon is flexed/stretched to improve elasticity and tone.

63

Positives of stretching

Increases strength and flexibility , good for circulation, reduces stress and increases range of motion

64

Negative of stretching

Vulnerable to injury especially if haven’t warmed up

65

Positives of rehydration and replenishment of glycogen stores

Prevents dehydration, fatigue and dizziness while replacing electrolytes and energy

66

Negatives of rehydration/ replenishment of glycogen stores

May vomit, cramp or gain weight

67

What’s an ice bath?

Training regiment that flushes lactic acid from muscles while repairing micro trauma

68

Positives of ice baths

Reduces swelling, drains lactic acid, needs no specific equipment, cheap and works on multiple muscles

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Negatives of ice baths

Unpleasant (cold), same results as cool down and requires much ice

70

Long term effects of exercise

Cardiac hypertrophy, bradycardia, improvements in components of fitness

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Immediate effects of exercise

Hot, sweaty and red skin, HR increase, breathing rate increase

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Short term effects of exercise

Tiredness, fatigue, DOMs, nausea, dizziness