Flashcards in Physiology 2 Deck (72):
Passage of air
1) 2 external openings (nasal & mouth)
2) down trachea
3) splits into 2 bronchi
4) bronchioles in lungs
How’s the trachea adapted to its function?
It’s kept open by rings of cartilage to protect it and lined with cilia that wafts pathogens away.
How are lungs optimised for gas exchange?
Large and spongey
How thin are bronchioles?
1 mm thick
How are alveoli adapted for gas exchange?
Large surface area and blood supply, thin walls & moisture
Process of diffusion and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide into the blood and lungs
Very small w large numbers, large surface area, network of capillaries, large blood supply, moisture, thin walls
Protein/ red pigment allowing transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Haemoglobin in the presence of oxygen
What breathing involves
Ribs, intercostal muscles, diaphragm
What happens during inspiration
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract pushing the ribs up and out, low air pressure
What happens during expiration?
Intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax pulling the ribs lower and the making the chest cavity smaller raising air pressure
Inspiration during exercise
Assisted by the sternocleidomastoid and pectorals to raise the sternum and so expand the lungs
Expiration during exercise
Assisted by abdominals to force air out of lungs
Volume of air breathed in or out at normal breath (up to 500ml)
Expiratory reserve volume
Additional amount of air expired from the lungs at normal breath
Inspiratory reserve volume
Additional amount of air inspired at resting breath
Volume of air left in the lungs after fully breathing out.
Maximum volume of air breathed in or out.
Name of redistribution of blood flow
Increase in diameter of artery to increase blood flow and decrease pressure.
Decrease in diameter of artery to decrease blood flow and increase pressure
Arteries blood flow direction
AWAY from heart
Arteries carry which type of blood?
Oxygenated (apart from pulmonary)
Which blood vessel has a pulse?
Characteristics of an artery
Thick muscular wall, small lumen, high pressure
Size of capillaries
1 cell thick wall
What type of blood do capillaries carry?
Oxygenated AND deoxygenated as they link arteries and veins
Purpose of capillaries
Linking of arteries and veins & rapid diffusion of substances in and out of blood due to their thin walls and lumen carrying 1 red blood cell at a time
What type of blood do veins carry?
Pressure in a vein
Low (no pulse)
Characteristics of veins
Thin walled, large lumen and valves to prevent clotting or pooling
1 contraction of heart + 1 relaxation of heart =
Number of times your heart beats a minute (bpm)
Function of valves
What fills with blood first in the heart? Atria or ventricles?
Atria fill with blood before pumping into ventricles
Passage of blood from lungs to heart?
Veins carry oxygenated blood to heart and into pulmonary vein.
Heart to muscle tissue blood flow?
Blood flows from left atrium into left ventricle through the mitral valve. Then flows through aorta to muscles.
Muscle tissue to heart blood flow?
Veins carry deoxygenated blood into heart via vena cava into right atrium.
Heart to lungs blood flow?
Flows through tricuspid valve to right ventricle before leaving through pulmonary artery
Heart filling with blood and relaxed
Heart emptying blood and contracted
Cardiac output (Q) (Measured in L per min)
Stroke volume (ml)* heart rate
Volume of blood pumped from left ventricle per minute
220- your age
Spike in HR prior to exercise due to adrenaline
Optimum cardiac output
Plateau of HR during exercise due to reaching maximal cardiac output.
Relies on energy produced in presence of oxygen
Relies on energy produced without oxygen supply and so producing lactic acid as byproduct.
Glucose + oxygen > energy + carbon dioxide + water
Example of aerobic activity
Yoga (low intensity & long duration)
Glucose> energy + lactic acid
Example of anaerobic activity
Sprinting as is high intensity and short duration
EPOC stands for ...?
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption
Temporary oxygen shortage in the body due to strenuous exercise
Rapid & heavy intake of oxygen to repay oxygen debt
What’s a cool down?
Allowing physiological activity to return to normal gradually after strenuous exercise
Positives of cool down
Returns HR/breathing return to normal gradually, avoids fainting & dizziness, prevents blood pooling, lactic acid & DOMs, cools temp, .
Negative of cool down
Takes 5-10mins of time
Physical exercise in which a specific muscle/ tendon is flexed/stretched to improve elasticity and tone.
Positives of stretching
Increases strength and flexibility , good for circulation, reduces stress and increases range of motion
Negative of stretching
Vulnerable to injury especially if haven’t warmed up
Positives of rehydration and replenishment of glycogen stores
Prevents dehydration, fatigue and dizziness while replacing electrolytes and energy
Negatives of rehydration/ replenishment of glycogen stores
May vomit, cramp or gain weight
What’s an ice bath?
Training regiment that flushes lactic acid from muscles while repairing micro trauma
Positives of ice baths
Reduces swelling, drains lactic acid, needs no specific equipment, cheap and works on multiple muscles
Negatives of ice baths
Unpleasant (cold), same results as cool down and requires much ice
Long term effects of exercise
Cardiac hypertrophy, bradycardia, improvements in components of fitness
Immediate effects of exercise
Hot, sweaty and red skin, HR increase, breathing rate increase