Physiology of Aging Flashcards Preview

Geriatrics > Physiology of Aging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology of Aging Deck (53):
1

Define Aging

Gradual loss in reserve capacity of organs and organ systems leading to functional impairment & ultimately to death

2

Define Homeostasis

Maintaining of the stability of the internal environment

3

Common Reduced Homeostatic Responses in the Elderly

Baroreceptor responsiveness
Thermoregulatory responses
Cardiac reserve
Thirst
Dark adaptation

4

What does a reduced baroreceptor responsiveness lead to?

Increased postural hypotension

5

What does a reduced thermoregulatory response lead to?

Higher hypothermia, hyperthermia

6

What does a reduced cardiac reserve lead to?

Fluid overload

7

What does reduced thirst lead to?

Dehydration

8

What does a reduced dark adaptation lead to?

Night driving hazards

9

Host Defense Against Infection

Skin, mucous membranes
Mucociliary defenses
Gastric
BPH
Absence of fever
PMN's altered, t-cells altered

10

Most Common Early Sign of Aging

Difficulty staying up all night & working the next day

11

Early Signs of Aging in the 30's

Easier weight gain
Graying hair, thinning hair
Wrinkling forehead & eyes
Concern about biologic clock, financial security, family obligations
Injuries "weekend warrior"

12

Signs of Aging in the 40s

Reflection on mortality, life's limitations, unreached dreams & goals
Skin changes
Vision Changes
Osteoarthritis

13

Skin Changes in the 40's

Sagging
Wrinkling
Thinning
Benign & malignant issues
Sweat glands

14

Vision Changes in the 40's

Presbyopia
Require reading glasses

15

Signs of Aging in the 50's & Early 60's

Sense of aging
Menopause
Becoming a grandparent
Death of parents, friends
Oldest at work
Physical limitations, medical problems
Senior citizen discounts
AARP membership

16

Signs of Aging in the 70's & 80's

1+ chronic disabling condition
Arthritis, HTN, hearing loss, heart conditions, visual problems, bone problems
Psychologic & social losses

17

Psychologic & Social Losses in the 70's & 80's

Retirement
Death of spouse or close family member
Children moving away
Friends dying or moving
Moving into apartment or retirement living
Inability to socialize from sensory or physical impairments

18

Aging & the Rule of Thirds

1/3 disease
1/3 inactivity
1/3 aging itself

19

Theories of Aging

Programmed phenomena
Error theory
Repair theory
Redundancy failure
Killer hormone theory

20

Describe the Programmed Phenomena

All cells bear specific "death" genes

21

Describe the Error Theory

Cellular DNA & RNA error
Accumulation of inappropriate proteins & enzymes
Unable to support cellular metabolism

22

Describe Repair Failure Theory

Failure of DNA repair

23

Describe Redundancy Failure

As cell ages, supply of redundant genes exhausted

24

Describe Killer Hormone Theory

Pituitary produces "killer" hormone destroying cell function

25

Advantages of Adaptation to Disability & to Role Losses

Greater independence
Fewer responsibilities
Reduces concern about day to day inconveniences
Financial security: SS, retirement programs

26

Hematologic Aging Changes

Slight decrease in RBC, Hgb, Hct
WBCs increase in lobulation & decrease in granulation
Changes in subsets of lymphocytes
ESR increases slightly
Physiologic anemia of aging
Decreased reserve of RBCs

27

Musculoskeletal Changes in Aging

Height: lose 2-4"
Weight: men peaks in 50s & women in 60s
Increase in density, decrease in the water content of connective tissues
Calcification of connective tissue
Decreased bone mineral content
Decrease in muscle mass

28

Results of a Decrease in the Water Content of Connective Tissues

Loss of skin elasticity
Joint stiffness

29

Result of Calcification of Connective Tissue

Atherosclerotic changes
DJD

30

Bone Loss in Women Due to

Decreased estrogen production
Vitamin D absorption declines

31

Skin Changes with Aging

Decreased tone & elasticity
Decline in subQ adipose tissue
Yellowing of nails, rigid nails
Hair loss after 30 in men
Decrease in pigment

32

Respiratory Changes with Aging

Decrease in alveolar size
Vital capacity decreases progressively
Elastic recoil decreases due to changes in collagen
Forced residual capacity increases
Reduce expiratory flow velocities
All timed pulmonary functions decrease with age

33

CV Changes with Aging

Increased collagen in vascular smooth muscle
Decreased elastic tissue
Cardiac output decreases
Slight reduction in resting heart rate
Decreased organ perfusion
Increased peripheral resistance
Decreased vascular compliance
Increased systolic BP

34

Renal Changes with Aging

Decrease in nephron units
GFR & CrCl decline
Peak bladder capacity reduced
Residual urine increases
Blood flow best at night
Prostate gland doubles in size

35

Why the decrease in nephron units?

Kidney loses mass
Renal blood vessels thicken, lose elasticity
Medullary connective tissue increases, replaces interstitial cells
Loss of juxtamedullary glomeruli

36

Alimentary Canal Changes with Aging

Loss of teeth occurs secondary to bone & connective tissue changes
Periodontal disease
Poor nutritional status
Lack of dental care & poor hygiene contributes
LES fails to relax with peristaltic waves
Atrophic gastritis & pernicious anemia
Gastric secretions reduced (Achlorhydria)

37

Colon Changes with Aging

Decreased motor function
Depression of defecation reflex
Decreased colonic muscle tone
Decreased perfusion of GI tract secondary to vascular changes

38

Pancreatic Changes with Aging

Decrease in pancreatic lipase activity
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis

39

Aging Changes in Men

Increase fibrous tissue of interlobular spaces of testes
Thickening of the basement membrane around the seminiferous tubules
Sperm production decreases

40

Parathyroid Hormones & Changes in Aging

Levels decrease in women at 40 and men at 60

41

Changes in Miscellaneous Organ Systems with Aging

Decreased cerebral blood flow
Decreased vibratory sensation
Decreased hand grip, strength, coordination, writing

42

Changes within the Brain with Aging

Reduction in cerebral hemisphere mass
Decreased neurotransmitters
Delay in monosynaptic reflex arc
Motor time increases with aging

43

Sleep Complaints in the Elderly

Altered sleep patterns
More time in bed, less time sleeping
Frequent night time urination
Arthritic pain

44

Difference Between Memory Loss & Alzheimer's Disease

Memory: worry about memory loss
Alzheimer's: unaware of any mental impairment

45

Special Senses Changes with Aging

Cataracts
Macular degeneration
Decrease in visual receptors
Presbyopia
Decreased number of retinal rods, dark vision
Decreased hearing
Decreased vestibular function
Decreased number of tongue papillae & taste buds
Olfaction declines leading to poor nutrition
Weight loss

46

Psychological Aspects of Aging

Role changes: retirement
Coping with medical illness
Loss of spouse
Friends dying
Children are adults & far away or occupied with their own families

47

Laboratory Value Changes

ESR increases
CrCl decreases
Blood glucose rises
Cholesterol risses
Albumin falls
T3 falls

48

Define Healthy Aging

Adaptation to the changes associated with the aging process that is acceptable to the individuals

49

3 Factors with Healthy Aging

Low probability of disease & disability
Higher cognitive & physical functioning
Active engagement in life

50

Define Disengagement Theory

Voluntary cutting back on work, social, & family ties
More satisfied with vicarious activities & reminiscing
Comes to terms with & accepts past failures

51

Describe the Prototypical Disengaged Person

Well known
Loved by neighbors
Happily spends all day rocking on the front porch

52

Define Activity Theory

Staying as active as possible
Continued professional or volunteer work
Social activities, family, hobbies

53

Define Continuity Theory

Allowing personal preferences from earlier years to manifest themselves as the individuals responds to the stress & challenges of older age