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Flashcards in Pilot Weather Reports (PIREP's) Deck (76):
1

Under what conditions are ATC facilities required to solicit PIREP's from pilot's?

Ceiling below 5000 feet or visibility at or below 5 miles.

2

Who do pilots make PIREP's to?

An FSS or ATC.

3

What does the ATC facility or FSS do with the PIREP once it is filed?

Add it to the distribution system to brief other pilots and provide in-flight advisories.

4

What does TEI stand for?

Text Element Indicator

5

Name all of the PIREP TEI's

/UA
/OV
/TM
/FL
/TP
/SK
/WX
/TA
/WV
/TB
/IC
/RM

6

What is a UA?

Routine PIREP.

7

What is a UUA?

An Urgent PIREP.

8

What is /OV?

Location

9

What is /TM?

Time

10

What is /FL?

Altitude or Flight Level

11

What is /TP?

Aircraft Type

12

What is /SK?

Cloud Layers

13

What is /WX?

Visibility & Weather

14

What is /TA?

Air Temperature

15

What is /WV?

Wind

16

What is /TB?

Turbulence

17

What is /IC?

Icing

18

What is /RM?

Remarks

19

What makes a PIREP urgent?

A tornado, funnel cloud, waterspout, severe or extreme turbulence, severe icing, hail, volcanic ash, or low level wind shear.

20

A... LOCATION!

/OV (Location)/("Over")

What are the 3 ways to report your PIREP location?

1. Direction and distance from a NAVAID.
2. Direction and distance from an Airport.
3. The Latitude and Longitude of the PIREP.

21

A... LOCATION!

What does Location look like on a PIREP?

/OV ORD090035 .

(Look at the spaces!)

/OV(space)
NAVAID/AIRPORT identifier,
3 digits for heading from the NAVAID/AIRPORT,
3 digits for distance from the NAVAID/AIRPORT
(Space).

22

B... TIME!

What does Time look like on a PIREP?

/TM 0950 .

(Look at the spaces!)

Four digits in 24 hour UTC
(space)

23

C... ALTITUDE/FLIGHT LEVEL!

What does Altitude/Flight Level look like on a PIREP?

/FL018 . (1800 ft)
/FLUNKN . (Unknown)
/FLDURD . (During descent or on approach)
/FLDURC . (During climb or after takeoff)

24

D... AIRCRAFT TYPE!

What does aircraft type look like on a PIREP?

/TP C182 .
/TP UNKN .

(Look at the spaces!)

25

E... SKY CONDITION!

What does the following mean?

/SK BKN-OVCUNKN-TOP060/BKN120-TOP150/ SKC

Broken to Overcast cloud layer starting at an UNKNOWN base height with a top of 6000 feet (MSL).

AND

A second layer of of BROKEN cloud from 12000 feet (MSL) to 15000 feet (MSL) and clear sky above that.

26

E... SKY CONDITION!

What does the following mean?

/SK OVC065-TOPUNKN /RM IMC

There is an overcast cloud layer from 6500 feet (MSL) to an UNKNOWN height...

The /RM IMC means the plane is in the clouds "IM in the Clouds"

27

E... SKY CONDITION!

Regarding /SK

What are the authorised contractions for cloud cover?

SKC
FEW
SCT
BKN
OVC

28

E... SKY CONDITION!

When more than one layer is reported, what do you use to separate layers in your PIREP?

A solidus (/).

29

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is the first thing you might report in this field?

Visibility (if reported!)

30

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

If reporting Visibility, how would it look?

FV followed by a two-digit visibility value rounded down, if necessary, to the nearest whole statute mile and append “SM” (FV03SM).

31

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

If visibility is reported as unrestricted, what would you enter?

FV99SM

32

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What comes after VISIBILITY?

Flight weather types using one or more of the 34 standard surface weather reporting symbols.

33

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Drifting Snow/Blowing Snow


DRSN/BLSN

34

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Drifting Dust

DRDU

35

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Drifting Sand

DRSA

36

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Drizzle/Freezing Drizzle

DZ/FZDZ

37

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Dust/Blowing Dust

DU/BLDU

38

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Freezing Fog

FZFG

39

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Freezing Rain

FZRA

40

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Hail Shower

SHGR

41

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Ice Pellets/Ice Pellet Showers

PL/SHPL

42

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Patchy Fog

BCFG

43

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Patchy Fog on part of Arpt

PRFG

44

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Rain/Showers

RA/SHRA

45

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Sand/Blowing Sand

SA/BLSA

46

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Shallow Fog

MIFG

47

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What is:

Sml Hail/Snow Pellet Showers

SHGS

48

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

Intensity of precipitation (- for light, no qualifier for moderate, and + for heavy) must be indicated with WHICH 2 PRECIPITATION TYPES?

Ice crystals and hail.

49

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

Intensity of obscurations must be described as moderate or + heavy for WHICH 2 TYPES OF OBSCURATIONS?

Dust and Sand Storms only.

50

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

What does the following mean?

/WX FV01SM +DS000-TOP083/ SKC /RM DURC

Flight visibility (rounded down to) 1 Statute Mile...

Heavy Dust Storm up to 8300 feet (MSL) with clear sky above that!

The observation was made during Climb.

51

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

When more than one form of precipitation is combined in the report, which type must be reported first?

The dominant type.

52

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

When FC is entered in /WX, WHAT is spelled out on /RM?

FUNNEL CLOUD!

For Example:
/WX FC /RM FUNNEL CLOUD

53

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

When +FC is entered in /WX, WHAT is spelled out in the /RM TEI?

TORNADO or WATERSPOUT

For Example:
/WX +FC /RM TORNADO or WATERSPOUT

54

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

How would you include the size of hail and where would you do so?

You would enter in 1/4” increments in the remarks /RM TEI.

EXAMPLE
/RM GR1/2
/RM GR3/4

55

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

When might you use The proximity qualifier VC (Vicinity)?

The proximity qualifier VC (Vicinity) is only used with TS, FG, FC, +FC, SH, PO, BLDU, BLSA, and BLSN.

EXAMPLE-
/WX FV02SM BLDU000-TOP083 VC W

56

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

When more than one type of weather is to be reported what should be the order?

1) TORNADO, WATERSPOUT, OR FUNNEL CLOUD;
2) Thunderstorm with or without associated precipitation;
3) Weather phenomena in order of decreasing predominance.

AND

No more than three groups in a single PIREP.

57

G... AIR TEMPETATURE! /TA

What does Air Temperature look like on a PIREP?

/TA
(space)
Air Temperature degrees C

or

M
Air Temperature degrees C

/TA 08 - 8 degrees Celcius
/TA M08 - minus 8 degrees Celcius

58

F... VISIBILITY & WEATHER! /WX

Weather layers must be entered with the WHAT and/or WHAT of the layer when reported?

Their base and/or top of the layer using the same format as in the /SK TEI.

59

H... WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED! /WV

What is /WV made up of?

/WV
(space)
Three digit wind direction (magnetic)
Two/Three digit wind speed
KT.

/WV 28080KT
wind heading 280 degrees at 80 knot's
/WV 28008KT
wind heading 280 degrees at 8 knot's
/WV 280105KT
wind heading 280 degrees at 105 knot's

60

I... TURBULENCE! /TB

What is /TB made up of?

/TB(space)
Intensity(space)

"LGT,MOD,SEV,EXTRM... USE '-' to range from ONE to ANOTHER e.g. LGT-MOD

Type(space)

CAT "clear air turbulence" or CHOP "rhythmic turbulence"

Altitude(space)

Using 3 digits in hundreds of feet MSL for base and top of the turbulence seperated by a hyphen '-'

Use BLO if base unknown
Use ABV if top unknown

EXAMPLE-
/TB LGT 040
/TB MOD-SEV BLO 080
/TB MOD-SEV CAT 350
/TB NEG 120-180
/TB MOD CHOP 220/NEG 230-280
/TB MOD CAT ABV 290

61

Which parts of the PIREP are Mandetory?

Mandatory

UA or UUA
/OV
/TM
/FL
/TP

62

Which parts of the PIREP are by Choice?

AT LEAST 1 IS REQUIRED!
/SK
/TA
/WV
/TB
/IC
/RM
/WX

63

I... TURBULENCE! /TB

What is CAT

Clear Air Turbulence

64

I... TURBULENCE! /TB

What is CHOP?

Rhythmic Turbulence.

65

J... ICING! /IC

What does Icing look like on a PIREP?

/IC(space)
INTENSITY(space)"TR,LGT,MDT,SVR
trace/light/moderate/severe...
TYPE(space) "CLR,RIME,MXD"
clear/rime/mixed...

and if different to /FL TMI then...
ALTITUDE(space) 000-000 BLO-ABV if either is unknown.

EXAMPLE-
/IC LGT-MDT MXD 085
/IC LGT RIME
/IC MDT RIME BLO 095
/IC SEV CLR 035-062

66

I... TURBULENCE! /TB

If turbulence was forecasted, but not encountered, what do you enter and where?

NEG.

/TB NEG 120-180
or
/TB MOD CHOP 220/NEG 230-280

67

K... REMARKS! /RM

This TEI is used to report any phenomenon which is considered important but does not fit in any of the other TEIs. This includes, but is not limited to WHAT?

Low level wind shear (LLWS) reports, Thunderstorm lines Coverage and movement, Size of hail (1/4'' increments),
Lightning,
Clouds observed but not encountered,
Geographical or local description of where the phenomenon occurred and contrails.

NOTE:
Report hazardous weather first.
Describe LLWS to the extent possible.

68

K... REMARKS! /RM

Wind Shear.

How is Wind shear reported?

Wind speed fluctuations of +/- 10 Kts or more within 2,000 Ft require an Urgent (UUA) PIREP.
Enter LLWS as the first remark. LLWS may be reported as -, +, or +/- depending on how it effects the aircraft. If the location is different than the /OV or /FL fields, include the location in the remarks.

EXAMPLE-
/RM LLWS +/-15 KT SFC-008 DURC RY22 JFK

69

K... REMARKS! /RM

FUNNEL CLOUD's, TORNADO's, and WATERSPOUT's are entered HOW?

With the direction of movement if reported.

EXAMPLE-
/RM TORNADO E MOV E

70

K... REMARKS! /RM

How are Thunderstorm's reported in the remarks section?

Enter coverage (ISOL, FEW, SCT, NMRS) and description (LN,BKN LN,SLD LN) if reported. Follow with “TS,” the location and movement, and the type of lightning if reported.

EXAMPLE-
/RM NMRS TS S MOV E GR1/2

71

K... REMARKS! /RM

How is Lightening reported in the remarks section?

Frequency (OCNL, FRQ, CONS), followed by type (LTGIC, LTGCC, LTGCG, LTGCA, or combinations), if reported.

EXAMPLE-
/RM OCNL LTGICCG

72

K... REMARKS! /RM

How is Electric Discharge reported in the remarks section?

Enter DISCHARGE followed by the altitude.

EXAMPLE-
/RM DISCHARGE 120

73

K... REMARKS! /RM

How are Clouds reported in the remarks section?

Use remarks when clouds can be seen but were not encountered and reported in /SK.

EXAMPLE-
/RM CB E MOV N
/RM OVC BLO

74

K... REMARKS! /RM

When might you use plain language?

If specific phraseology is not adequate, use plain language to describe the phenomena or local geographic locations. Include remarks that do not fit in other TEIs like DURC, DURD, RCA, TOP, TOC, or CONTRAILS.

EXAMPLE-
/RM BUMPY VERY ROUGH RIDE
/RM CONTRAILS
/UA/OV BIS270030/TM 1445/FL060/TP CVLT/TB
LGT /RM Donner Summit Pass

75

K... REMARKS! /RM

How is Volcanic Ash reported in the remarks section?

As an Urgent PIREP.
Must include as much information as possible.
Name of mountain, ash cloud and movement, height of the top and bottom of the ash, etc.

If received from other than a pilot, enter Aircraft “UNKN,” Flight Level “UNKN,” and /RM UNOFFICIAL.

EXAMPLE-
UUA/OV ANC240075/TM 2110/FL370/TP DC10/WX VA/RM VOLCANIC ERUPTION 2008Z MT AUGUSTINE ASH 40S MOV SSE

76

Which 2 Weather Types must always include the type aircraft TEI?

Icing and turbulence reports