Flashcards in Plant Proteins Deck (128):
Why plant proteins?
Health and Vegetarians
Perceived health benefits
Food safety scares
Concerns for animal welfare
What is the greenhouse gas production via consumption of Meat? Dairy Products? Poultry, fish,seafood and eggs?
Dairy Products: 18.9%
Poultry, Fish, Seafood and Eggs: 13.9%
What is the greenhouse gases production via consumptions of vegetables, fruit and grain products?
Grain products: 3.0%
How many pounds of Co2 / serving of meat? Cheese? Pork? Poultry? Eggs? Milk?
Beef: 6.5 lb
Cheese: 2.5 lb
Pork: 2 lb
Poultry: 1.5 lb
Eggs: 1 lb
Milk: 0.8 lb
How much tons of Co2 equivalents for a meat lover?
How much tons of Co2 equivalents for an average person?
How much tons of Co2 equivalents for a a person who consumes no beef?
How much tons of Co2 equivalents for a vegetarian?
How much tons of Co2 equivalents for a vegan?
A vegetarian/partial vegetarian diet has been associated with lower rats of what?
-high blood pressure
-type 2 diabetes
-certain types of cancers
What type of vegetarian consumes milk products?
What type of vegetarian consumes milk products and eggs?
What type of vegetarian consumes fish and seafood?
What type of vegetarian consumes NO animal products?
What typeof vegetarian consumes raw or dried fruit, seeds and nuts?
What is the name of a person who eats a diet of foods derived from plants and animals?
What does karuna mean?
What does karma mean?
good is rewarded with good, and evil is rewarded with evil.
What is religions are associated with vegetarians?
Seventh-Day Adventist Church
Church of Jesus Chris of Latter Day Saints (Mormon Church)
What is the basis for vegetarianism in Buddhism? Are all Buddhists vegan?
Considered uncompassionate to eat the flesh of another living creature.
Not all buddhists are vegetarian/
What is the basis for vegetarianism in Hinduism? Are they all vegan?
Some believe that the should is all-importance, uniting all beings as one, so it is against their beliefs to injure or kill a person or an animal.
Vegetarianism's promoted among some, but not all.
What is the basis for vegetarianism in Seventh-Day Adventist Church? Are the all vegan?
A vegetarian diet is recommended but not required for members.
40% of its members are vegetarians, with the majority lacto-ovo-vegetarians.
What else does the Seventh-Day Adventist Church suggest?
Discourages the consumption of between-meal snacks, hot spices, alcohol, tea and coffee.
What is the basis for vegetarianism in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints? What is discouraged ?
Doctrine & Covenants say "Flesh also of beasts and the fowls of the air, they are to be used sparingly"
Consuming of alcohol, coffee and tea is discouraged.
How does protein do in our bodies?
-Acid Base balance
-Energy and glucose
What plant-derived proteins are suggested to replace meat & alternatives?
-Nuts & Seeds
-Soy based products
-Peanut or nut butter
What plant-derived proteins are suggested to replace milk & alternatives?
Fortified soy beverages
What does CFG recommend for meat alternatives?
To consume beans, lentils and tofu often.
What does CFG recommend for milk alternatives?
Drink fortified soy beverages you do not drink milk.
What nutrients must vegetarians be aware of?
What are some vegetarian sources of protein?
Legume and their products, TVP, grains, dairy, eggs.
What are some vegetarian sources of Iron?
Legumes and their products, TVP, fortified grains,nits and seeds, kale and spinach
What are some vegetarian sources of Calcium?
fortified beverages, tofu, almonds, sesame seeds, some vegetables and dairy
What kind of calcium is in tofu?
What are some vegetarian sources of Vitamin D?
Fortified beverages and margarine
What are some vegetarian sources of Vitamin B12?
Fortified beverages meat and alternatives, nutritional yeas, dairy and eggs.
What are some vegetarian sources of Omega 3?
Soy products, walnuts, flaxseed, chia seeds, w-3 eggs
What nutrients are commonly found in meat?
Iron, Zinc, B12
How can you obtain adequate amounts of b12 on a vegan diet?
Inactive, nutritional yeast
What are some characteristics of b12?
Cheesy, nutty flavours
an be consumed as is
Readily dissolves on water, fruit or vegetable juice
What are the 3 subcategories of legumes?
1) Soybeans / Peanuts
3) Fresh Peas/Beans
What are some examples of pulses?
What are legumes a good source of?
-Fiber and complex carbohydrates
-Calcium, phosphorous, potassium
What nutrient are legumes superior in compared to other vegetables?
What is the problem with the calcium found in legumes? When is this mineral restricted?
Low bioavailability of calcium
Calcium is often restricted in the diets of people with kidney disease
Generally legumes are low in _____, except for ______
Peanuts and soy
Soybeans are relatively high in what compared to other legumes? What else do they contains?
High in good quality protein,fat and calories.
Also contain isoflavones, a class of phytoestrogens.
What are phytoestrogens ?
Plant derived compounds structurally similar to estrogenic substances
Legumes are generally high in what?
What carbohydrates are primarily found in legumes?
-Olgiosaccharides and FODMAPs
What oligosaccharides are found in legumes? Are the digestible? What do they cause?
Raffinose, scorse, stachyose, verbascose.
Undigestible and cause flatulence.
What is flatulence caused by?
Hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide which is produced by intestinal bacteria when they ferment legumes indigestible oligosaccharides
How can oligosaccharides extracted?
-Increasing water/bean ration (10:1) for soaking
-Adding baking soda
-Adding phenolic compounds
-Taking enzyme-containing commercial product such as Beano
Whats important to remember about soaking legumes? What may result?
Discard he water used for soaking the obtains oligosaccharides and cook with fresh new water.
May result in some nutrient losses.
How does adding baking soda extract oligosaccharides?
May result in protein and B vitamin loss, and mushy legumes.
How does adding phenolic compounds extract oligosaccharides?
Done in industry setting, interfered with intestinal miroorganism actions.
How does thing enzyme containing commercial products (beano) extract oligosaccharides?
Breaks down some of the oligosaccharides into digestible forms.
What are nuts and seeds high in?
Calories and fat
What are nuts and seeds a good source of?
Proteins, fiber, vitamins, and minerals
Why is soy milk fortified?
Naturally, soy milk contains only 25% of the claim in cows milk and is lacking in vitamin B12
Besides calcium and b12, what else is soy milk fortified in?
Vitamin A and D
What does soy milk not contain? Who may consume soy milk?
Does not contain lactose
Can be used as a milk substitute for people who ate lactose intolerant
What is protein quality?
Qualities of different proteins can be compared by comparing essential amino acids
Why are plant proteins lower quality than plant proteins?
because they lack a sufficient quantity and the proper ratio ion one or more of the essential amino acids.
What are oil seeds?
soybeans and peanuts
What are vegetable legumes?
Fresh beans and peas
What are pulses?
What AA's are legumes limited in?
Methionine and Tryptophan
What AA's are Nuts limited in?
Methionine and Tryptophan and Lysine
What AA's are grains limited in?
Tryptophan, Lysine and Threonine
What AA's are seeds limited in?
Methionine and Lysine
What are the 3 steps in preparing legumes?
1. Wash and dry dried legume or pulsed
3. Simmer rather than boil
What are the three methods for soaking dried legumes?
1) Overnight soak
2) Short soak
3) No soak
What is the overnight soak method?
Legumes are soaked in three times more water than their volume overnight.
what is the short soak method?
Legumes are placed in three times their volume of water and are brought to a boil, simmered for minutes and then left to soak for 1 hour,
How should legumes be cooked?
In a neutral medium
What happened when legumes are cooked in an acidic medium? At what point should acid be added when cooking?
Results in a longer cooking time due to the softening of pectic compounds
Add acid at then end of cooing, when the legumes are well cooked.
What happens when legumes are cooked in basic medium? What nutrient may be lossed?
Mushy texture due to increased re-hydration speed of dried legumes.
May result in the loss of thiamine.
Why does cooking legumes make them more palatable?
-Gelatinizing the starch
-Altering the texture
-Improving the flavour
What is another reason legumes should be cooked?
Eliminates toxic substances such as trypsin and proteins inhibitors and hemagglutinin
What do trypsin and protease inhibitors do?
Reduce proteins absorption
What does hemagglutinin do?
Interferes with absorption of nutrient, such as in red kidney beans
What can be sprouted? What another name for sprouting?
Any whole grain or legume can be sprouted into fresh greens.
Sprouting = germination
Why should legumes be sprouted?
Increase vitamin content, particularly vitamin C. flavour, palatability and digestibility
Sprouting legumes increase vitamin C, what is the downside of sprouting ?
Availability of iron is reduced by binding to fibre or phytates
How does sprouting enhance digestibility of legume?
Releases enzymes, such as alpha-amylase that break down the starches in more readily digestible sugars.
How do you grow sprouts?
Soaking and rinsing beans daily as they sprout to achieve desired length.
What is a risk factor for sprouting?
Eating raw sprouts are at risk for seed contamination with salmonella or E.coli bacteria
What are 3 ways legumes can be stored?
3) Cool, dry storage
How can cooked legumes be refrigerated?
Cooked legumes in their cooking liquid will last 3 days in the refrigerator
How can bean sprouts be refrigerated ?
Best stored in a bowl of cold water, water should be changed daily to prevent molding.
How can cooed beans be frozen?
Drain cooked beans, will last for 3 months.
Why should nuts and seeds be frozen ?How can nuts and seeds be frozen?
because they are susceptible to rancidity to their high fat content
Store in freezer or a dark cool place for a limited time
How can dried beans be stored in a cool, dry place?
Will keep up to year stored in airtight containers in a dry place
What happened when dried beans are stored too long or at high humidity (80%) ?
Dried beans will become difficult to cook.
What are 5 plant-derived protein products?
3) Meat Analogs
5) Soy derived beverage
What is TVP?
Derived from soybeans, peanuts, wheat, sunflower, alfalfa and cotton seed may also be used
Is TVP gluten free?
How is TVP altered?
Its plant material has been altered into fibrous, proud granules that rehydrate rapidly.
When is TVP used?
To extend or substitute ground meats and meat products in order to lower cost and/or reduce fat content
What is seitan derived from?
Is seitan gluten free?
What are meat analogs made of ?
Made by blending soy proteins with other vegetable proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals colourings and flavours.
Meat analogs contain ___ of the fat of the meats they replace and no ___`
Which essential AA do meat analogs law?
What are the disadvantages of meat analogs?
High in sodium
More costly than the meats they substitute
How many calories of meat analog vs real meat? Total fat? Sat fat?
260 kcal vs 320 kcal
16 g vs 26 g fat
2 g vs 13 g sat fat
How much sodium, total carbohydrate and protein in meat analog vs real meat?
480 mg vs 65 mg !!
7 g vs 0 g
23 g vs 21 g
What are meat analogs higher in than real meat?
Sodium, proteins and total carbohydrates
What are meat analogs lower in than real meat?
Calories, total fat, sat fat
What is tofu?
Th "cheese" made from soy beverage
How is tofu made?
1) The protein in soy beverages is slowly precipitated out through the use of coagulants
2) The curds are separated, then pressed.
What coagulants are used in production of tofu?
calcium/magnesium sulfate dehydrate
What does calcium/magnesium sulcate dehydrate do?
What does calcium/magnesium chloride do?
Increases firmness and calcium content
How should tofu be stored?
Once opened, drain off water and replace with fresh water and during refrigeration and increases shelf life.
What is a soy beverage?
A milk like liquid is extracted from ground soybeans or made from dos flour that is not defatted
How are soybeans soaked for production of soy milk?
Sold and ground in the presence of 10-fold excess of water
Why are homemade soy beverages bitter?
Due to the presence of the enzyme lipoxygenase that is activated once the bean in ground
How can lipoxygenase be denatured when making a homemade soy beverage ?
By grinding in hot water, will prevent the bitter/beany taste
When making a homemade soy beverage, how can trypsin inhibitor be destroyed?
By boiling the liquid for 20 mins
What are the 3 fermented soybean foods?
1) fermented soybean paste
2) Soy sauce
What is fermented soybean paste? How is it made?
Salty condiment of light yellow to dark brown colour,
made form fermenting a mix of cooked soybeans and rice or barley
What is soy sauce? How is it made? What molds are involved?
A condiment produced the a fermented and age paste of boiled soybeans, wheat and salt.
Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus soja molds.
What is tempeh? Whats the fermenting agent?
A fermented whole soybeans, folded into a cake.
What vitamin does tempeh contain in significant amounts?
Inactive B12 as a result of the fermentation process