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Food Fundamentals 2 > Plant Proteins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Plant Proteins Deck (128):
1

Why plant proteins?

Health and Vegetarians

2

Why health?

Perceived health benefits
Health Conditions
Food safety scares
Religious Practices
Concerns for animal welfare
Social
Environment

3

What is the greenhouse gas production via consumption of Meat? Dairy Products? Poultry, fish,seafood and eggs?

Meat: 47.6%
Dairy Products: 18.9%
Poultry, Fish, Seafood and Eggs: 13.9%

4

What is the greenhouse gases production via consumptions of vegetables, fruit and grain products?

Vegetables: 4.9%
Fruit: 3.6%
Grain products: 3.0%

5

How many pounds of Co2 / serving of meat? Cheese? Pork? Poultry? Eggs? Milk?

Beef: 6.5 lb
Cheese: 2.5 lb
Pork: 2 lb
Poultry: 1.5 lb
Eggs: 1 lb
Milk: 0.8 lb

6

How much tons of Co2 equivalents for a meat lover?

3.3 t

7

How much tons of Co2 equivalents for an average person?

2.5 t

8

How much tons of Co2 equivalents for a a person who consumes no beef?

1.9 t

9

How much tons of Co2 equivalents for a vegetarian?

1.7 t

10

How much tons of Co2 equivalents for a vegan?

1.5 t

11

A vegetarian/partial vegetarian diet has been associated with lower rats of what?

-Obesity
-Hear disease
-high blood pressure
-high cholesterol
-type 2 diabetes
-certain types of cancers

12

What type of vegetarian consumes milk products?

Lacto-vegetarian

13

What type of vegetarian consumes milk products and eggs?

Lacto-ovo-vegetarian

14

What type of vegetarian consumes fish and seafood?

Pesco-vegetarian

15

What type of vegetarian consumes NO animal products?

Vegan

16

What typeof vegetarian consumes raw or dried fruit, seeds and nuts?

Fruitarian

17

What is the name of a person who eats a diet of foods derived from plants and animals?

Omnivore

18

What does karuna mean?

Compassion

19

What does karma mean?

good is rewarded with good, and evil is rewarded with evil.

20

What is religions are associated with vegetarians?

Buddhism
Hinduism
Seventh-Day Adventist Church
Church of Jesus Chris of Latter Day Saints (Mormon Church)

21

What is the basis for vegetarianism in Buddhism? Are all Buddhists vegan?

Considered uncompassionate to eat the flesh of another living creature.
Not all buddhists are vegetarian/

22

What is the basis for vegetarianism in Hinduism? Are they all vegan?

Some believe that the should is all-importance, uniting all beings as one, so it is against their beliefs to injure or kill a person or an animal.
Vegetarianism's promoted among some, but not all.

23

What is the basis for vegetarianism in Seventh-Day Adventist Church? Are the all vegan?

A vegetarian diet is recommended but not required for members.
40% of its members are vegetarians, with the majority lacto-ovo-vegetarians.

24

What else does the Seventh-Day Adventist Church suggest?

Discourages the consumption of between-meal snacks, hot spices, alcohol, tea and coffee.

25

What is the basis for vegetarianism in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints? What is discouraged ?

Doctrine & Covenants say "Flesh also of beasts and the fowls of the air, they are to be used sparingly"
Consuming of alcohol, coffee and tea is discouraged.

26

How does protein do in our bodies?

-Building materials
-Hormones
-Enzymes
-Fluid Balance
-Acid Base balance
-Antibodies
-Transporters
-Energy and glucose

27

What plant-derived proteins are suggested to replace meat & alternatives?

-Legumes
-Nuts & Seeds
-Soy based products
-Peanut or nut butter

28

What plant-derived proteins are suggested to replace milk & alternatives?

Fortified soy beverages

29

What does CFG recommend for meat alternatives?

To consume beans, lentils and tofu often.

30

What does CFG recommend for milk alternatives?

Drink fortified soy beverages you do not drink milk.

31

What nutrients must vegetarians be aware of?

Proteins
Iron
Zinc
Calcium
Vitamin D
Vitamin B12
Omega 3

32

What are some vegetarian sources of protein?

Legume and their products, TVP, grains, dairy, eggs.

33

What are some vegetarian sources of Iron?

Legumes and their products, TVP, fortified grains,nits and seeds, kale and spinach

34

What are some vegetarian sources of Calcium?

fortified beverages, tofu, almonds, sesame seeds, some vegetables and dairy

35

What kind of calcium is in tofu?

Calcium sulfate

36

What are some vegetarian sources of Vitamin D?

Fortified beverages and margarine

37

What are some vegetarian sources of Vitamin B12?

Fortified beverages meat and alternatives, nutritional yeas, dairy and eggs.

38

What are some vegetarian sources of Omega 3?

Soy products, walnuts, flaxseed, chia seeds, w-3 eggs

39

What nutrients are commonly found in meat?

Iron, Zinc, B12

40

How can you obtain adequate amounts of b12 on a vegan diet?

Inactive, nutritional yeast

41

What are some characteristics of b12?

Cheesy, nutty flavours
an be consumed as is
Readily dissolves on water, fruit or vegetable juice

42

What are the 3 subcategories of legumes?

1) Soybeans / Peanuts
2) Pulses
3) Fresh Peas/Beans

43

What are some examples of pulses?

Dried beans
Dried peas
Chickpeas
Lentils

44

What are legumes a good source of?

-Fiber and complex carbohydrates
-Protein
-Folic acid
-Calcium, phosphorous, potassium
-Iron

45

What nutrient are legumes superior in compared to other vegetables?

FIBRE

46

What is the problem with the calcium found in legumes? When is this mineral restricted?

Low bioavailability of calcium
Calcium is often restricted in the diets of people with kidney disease

47

Generally legumes are low in _____, except for ______

Fat
Peanuts and soy

48

Soybeans are relatively high in what compared to other legumes? What else do they contains?

High in good quality protein,fat and calories.
Also contain isoflavones, a class of phytoestrogens.

49

What are phytoestrogens ?

Plant derived compounds structurally similar to estrogenic substances

50

Legumes are generally high in what?

carbohydrates

51

What carbohydrates are primarily found in legumes?

-Starch
-Olgiosaccharides and FODMAPs

52

What oligosaccharides are found in legumes? Are the digestible? What do they cause?

Raffinose, scorse, stachyose, verbascose.
Undigestible and cause flatulence.

53

What is flatulence caused by?

Hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide which is produced by intestinal bacteria when they ferment legumes indigestible oligosaccharides

54

How can oligosaccharides extracted?

-Increasing water/bean ration (10:1) for soaking
-Adding baking soda
-Adding phenolic compounds
-Taking enzyme-containing commercial product such as Beano

55

Whats important to remember about soaking legumes? What may result?

Discard he water used for soaking the obtains oligosaccharides and cook with fresh new water.
May result in some nutrient losses.

56

How does adding baking soda extract oligosaccharides?

May result in protein and B vitamin loss, and mushy legumes.

57

How does adding phenolic compounds extract oligosaccharides?

Done in industry setting, interfered with intestinal miroorganism actions.

58

How does thing enzyme containing commercial products (beano) extract oligosaccharides?

Breaks down some of the oligosaccharides into digestible forms.

59

What are nuts and seeds high in?

Calories and fat

60

What are nuts and seeds a good source of?

Proteins, fiber, vitamins, and minerals

61

Why is soy milk fortified?

Naturally, soy milk contains only 25% of the claim in cows milk and is lacking in vitamin B12

62

Besides calcium and b12, what else is soy milk fortified in?

Vitamin A and D

63

What does soy milk not contain? Who may consume soy milk?

Does not contain lactose
Can be used as a milk substitute for people who ate lactose intolerant

64

What is protein quality?

Qualities of different proteins can be compared by comparing essential amino acids

65

Why are plant proteins lower quality than plant proteins?

because they lack a sufficient quantity and the proper ratio ion one or more of the essential amino acids.

66

What are oil seeds?

soybeans and peanuts

67

What are vegetable legumes?

Fresh beans and peas

68

What are pulses?

Dried legumes

69

What AA's are legumes limited in?

Methionine and Tryptophan

70

What AA's are Nuts limited in?

Methionine and Tryptophan and Lysine

71

What AA's are grains limited in?

Tryptophan, Lysine and Threonine

72

What AA's are seeds limited in?

Methionine and Lysine

73

What are the 3 steps in preparing legumes?

1. Wash and dry dried legume or pulsed
2. Soak
3. Simmer rather than boil

74

What are the three methods for soaking dried legumes?

1) Overnight soak
2) Short soak
3) No soak

75

What is the overnight soak method?

Legumes are soaked in three times more water than their volume overnight.

76

what is the short soak method?

Legumes are placed in three times their volume of water and are brought to a boil, simmered for minutes and then left to soak for 1 hour,

77

How should legumes be cooked?

In a neutral medium

78

What happened when legumes are cooked in an acidic medium? At what point should acid be added when cooking?

Results in a longer cooking time due to the softening of pectic compounds
Add acid at then end of cooing, when the legumes are well cooked.

79

What happens when legumes are cooked in basic medium? What nutrient may be lossed?

Mushy texture due to increased re-hydration speed of dried legumes.
May result in the loss of thiamine.

80

Why does cooking legumes make them more palatable?

-Gelatinizing the starch
-Altering the texture
-Improving the flavour

81

What is another reason legumes should be cooked?

Eliminates toxic substances such as trypsin and proteins inhibitors and hemagglutinin

82

What do trypsin and protease inhibitors do?

Reduce proteins absorption

83

What does hemagglutinin do?

Interferes with absorption of nutrient, such as in red kidney beans

84

What can be sprouted? What another name for sprouting?

Any whole grain or legume can be sprouted into fresh greens.
Sprouting = germination

85

Why should legumes be sprouted?

Increase vitamin content, particularly vitamin C. flavour, palatability and digestibility

86

Sprouting legumes increase vitamin C, what is the downside of sprouting ?

Availability of iron is reduced by binding to fibre or phytates

87

How does sprouting enhance digestibility of legume?

Releases enzymes, such as alpha-amylase that break down the starches in more readily digestible sugars.

88

How do you grow sprouts?

Soaking and rinsing beans daily as they sprout to achieve desired length.

89

What is a risk factor for sprouting?

Eating raw sprouts are at risk for seed contamination with salmonella or E.coli bacteria

90

What are 3 ways legumes can be stored?

1) Refrigerated
2) Freezing
3) Cool, dry storage

91

How can cooked legumes be refrigerated?

Cooked legumes in their cooking liquid will last 3 days in the refrigerator

92

How can bean sprouts be refrigerated ?

Best stored in a bowl of cold water, water should be changed daily to prevent molding.

93

How can cooed beans be frozen?

Drain cooked beans, will last for 3 months.

94

Why should nuts and seeds be frozen ?How can nuts and seeds be frozen?

because they are susceptible to rancidity to their high fat content
Store in freezer or a dark cool place for a limited time

95

How can dried beans be stored in a cool, dry place?

Will keep up to year stored in airtight containers in a dry place

96

What happened when dried beans are stored too long or at high humidity (80%) ?

Dried beans will become difficult to cook.

97

What are 5 plant-derived protein products?

1) TVP
2) Seitan
3) Meat Analogs
4) Tofu
5) Soy derived beverage

98

What is TVP?

Derived from soybeans, peanuts, wheat, sunflower, alfalfa and cotton seed may also be used

99

Is TVP gluten free?

no

100

How is TVP altered?

Its plant material has been altered into fibrous, proud granules that rehydrate rapidly.

101

When is TVP used?

To extend or substitute ground meats and meat products in order to lower cost and/or reduce fat content

102

What is seitan derived from?

Wheat gluten

103

Is seitan gluten free?

no

104

What are meat analogs made of ?

Made by blending soy proteins with other vegetable proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals colourings and flavours.

105

Meat analogs contain ___ of the fat of the meats they replace and no ___`

Fat
Cholesterol

106

Which essential AA do meat analogs law?

Methionine

107

What are the disadvantages of meat analogs?

High in sodium
More costly than the meats they substitute

108

How many calories of meat analog vs real meat? Total fat? Sat fat?

260 kcal vs 320 kcal
16 g vs 26 g fat
2 g vs 13 g sat fat

109

How much sodium, total carbohydrate and protein in meat analog vs real meat?

480 mg vs 65 mg !!
7 g vs 0 g
23 g vs 21 g

110

What are meat analogs higher in than real meat?

Sodium, proteins and total carbohydrates

111

What are meat analogs lower in than real meat?

Calories, total fat, sat fat

112

What is tofu?

Th "cheese" made from soy beverage

113

How is tofu made?

1) The protein in soy beverages is slowly precipitated out through the use of coagulants
2) The curds are separated, then pressed.

114

What coagulants are used in production of tofu?

calcium/magnesium sulfate dehydrate
calcium/magnesium chloride

115

What does calcium/magnesium sulcate dehydrate do?

Increases volume

116

What does calcium/magnesium chloride do?

Increases firmness and calcium content

117

How should tofu be stored?

Once opened, drain off water and replace with fresh water and during refrigeration and increases shelf life.

118

What is a soy beverage?

A milk like liquid is extracted from ground soybeans or made from dos flour that is not defatted

119

How are soybeans soaked for production of soy milk?

Sold and ground in the presence of 10-fold excess of water

120

Why are homemade soy beverages bitter?

Due to the presence of the enzyme lipoxygenase that is activated once the bean in ground

121

How can lipoxygenase be denatured when making a homemade soy beverage ?

By grinding in hot water, will prevent the bitter/beany taste

122

When making a homemade soy beverage, how can trypsin inhibitor be destroyed?

By boiling the liquid for 20 mins

123

What are the 3 fermented soybean foods?

1) fermented soybean paste
2) Soy sauce
3) tempeh

124

What is fermented soybean paste? How is it made?

Salty condiment of light yellow to dark brown colour,
made form fermenting a mix of cooked soybeans and rice or barley

125

What is soy sauce? How is it made? What molds are involved?

A condiment produced the a fermented and age paste of boiled soybeans, wheat and salt.
Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus soja molds.

126

What is tempeh? Whats the fermenting agent?

A fermented whole soybeans, folded into a cake.
Rhizomes oligosporus.

127

What vitamin does tempeh contain in significant amounts?

Inactive B12 as a result of the fermentation process

128

Where does temped originate from? What kind of taste does it have?

Indonesia
Milky, nutty taste