Plant Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Plant Structure Deck (45):
1

Plant Body

Root System
Shoot System

2

Roots System

Root system generally equivalent in size and extent to shoot system. Includes roots and root hairs

3

Roots

anchor plant in soil
absorb water and nutrients
produce hormones

4

Root hairs

-projections from epidermal root cell hairs
-generally increase absorptive capacity of root

5

Shoot System

Composed of stem, branches, leaves

6

Stem

main axis of plant that elongated and produces leaves.
consists of nodes and internodes.
vascular tissue transports water and minerals

7

nodes

occur where leaves attached to stem

8

internodes

region between nodes

9

Phytomere

-molecular unit
stem node
internode
leaf
axillary meristem/bud

10

Leaves

major broad, thin part carries on photosynthesis

11

parts of leaves

blade
petiole
leaf axil

12

blade

wide portion

13

petiole

stalk attaches blade to stem

14

leaf axil

axillary bud originates

15

types of leaves

tendrils
bulbs

16

tendrils

attach to ojects

17

bulbs

store food

18

Plant tissues

epidermal tissues
ground tissues
vascular tissue

19

epidermal tissue

-from rotoderm
-contain closely packed epidermal cells
-contain waxy cuticle, 1 layer
-roots contain root hairs
-lower leaf surface contain stomata
-woody plants covered by cork
-trichomes (Pubescence=plant hair)

20

Ground tissue

forms bulk of a plant (from Ground meristern)
parenchyma cells
collenchyma cells
sclerenchyma cells

21

parenchyma cells

least specialized, all organs of plant, divides

22

collenchyma cells

thicker primary walls, bundles under epidermis

23

sclerenchyma cells

thick secondary walls with lignin, nonliving, support/protection

24

vascular tissues

from procambium (vascular bundles)
includes xylem and phloem

25

xylem

transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves (against gravity), Dead

26

Phloem

transports sucrose and other organic compounds from the leaves to the roots (up, down, laterally), Living

27

Root Organization

root apical meristem (RAM)
primary meristem
zone of maturation
epidermis root hairs
cortex
endodermis
vascular tissue

28

Root diversity

primary root
fibrous root system
adventitious roots

29

primary

Fleshy, long single root that grows straight down; Stores food; lateral roots

30

fibrous

Slender roots and lateral branches; Anchors plant to soil

31

adventitious

Above ground, develop from shoot system; Anchor and increase water flow

32

Stem Organization

Shoot Apical Meristem

33

Shoot Apical Meristem

produces new cells that elongate

protected by terminal bud

enveloped by leaf primordia

specialized by primary meristems

34

meristems

protoderm
ground meristem
procambium

35

Woody stems

both primary and secondary tissues

have no vascular bundles, but instead have 3 regions
bark
wood
pith

36

primary tissues

formed each year from primary meristems

37

secondary tissues

develop during first and subsequent years from lateral meristems

38

stolons

Above-ground horizontal stems

Produce new plants when nodes touch the ground

39

Rhizomes

Underground horizontal stems
Contribute to asexual reproduction

40

Rhizomes variations

tubers
corms

41

tubers

enlarged portions for food storage

42

corms

underground stems that produce new plants during next season

43

leaf blade

facilitates collection of solar E
- thinness prevents overheating

44

leaves adapted to

environment

45

roles in

attachment
attraction
protection