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Flashcards in Plantae Deck (55)
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1

Alternation of generations (sporic life cycle)

both multicellular haploid and diploid generations, such that this life cycle is characterized by an alternation-of(multicellular haploid and diploid)-generations. This life cycle is an innovation of land plants.

2

Angiosperms

“enclosed seed”

3

Antheridia

produce male gametes (sperm cells).

4

Apical meristems

Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.

5

Archegonia

produce female gametes (egg cells). (adaptive value: retention of egg in archegonium provides protection for the zygote).

6

Bifacial vascular cambium

The bifacial vascular cambium of seed plants produces secondary xylem to the inside of the plant, and secondary phloem to the outside of the plant.

7

Carpel

the female sex organ of flowering plants.

8

Chloroplast DNA inversion

The chloroplast DNA inversion happened in the ancestor of monilophytes and seed plants. It is when the DNA sequence in chloroplasts are reversed/inverted.

9

Companion cell

which nurture the sieve tube cells.

10

Determinate growth

once a plant reaches a predetermined size, it will stop growing.

11

Diploid

(2n) (of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.

12

Double fertilization

where each of the two sperm in a pollen grain fertilizes an egg.

13

Embryo

multicellular and diploid; product of the mitotic division of the zygote

14

Flower

sexual structure of flowering plants

15

Fruit

an expanded/ripened ovary.

16

Gametangia

the multicellular organs of the gameteophyte that produce gametes by mitosis (adaptive value: more gamete producing cells enable generation of more gametes per generation).

17

Gametes

sexual haploid cells, typically eggs and sperm.

18

Gametophyte

haploid ‘gamete plant’ that produces gametes by mitosis in gametangia.

19

Haploid

(n); (of a cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.

20

Heterospory

(a sporic life cycle with two kinds of spores) evolved independently three times in vascular plants: a. in lycophytes, b. in leptosporangiate ferns, and c. in seed plants
Homospory - male and female gametangia may occur on each individual.

21

Hornwort

green sporophyte with indeterminate growth.

22

Indeterminate growth

growing for its entire life time.

23

Lateral meristems

Cylinder of unspecialized meristem cells that divide laterally to give rise to cells that further divide and differentiate and specialize to form the secondary vascular tissue (secondary xylem and secondary phloem) Xylem tissue is produced on the inner side of the cambium ring and phloem tissue is produced on the outer side of the ring. There are two types of cambium layers: one that produces more vascular tissue, and the other that produces cork.

24

Megagametophyte

haploid female gametophyte.

25

Megaphyll

(mega = big, phyll = leaf) are leaves with a many branched vascular strands that evolved from modified side branches in euphyllophytes. (“true” leaves with more complex vascularization derived from side branches).

26

Megaspore

(note that only one of the four megaspores survive; three of the megaspores experience apoptosis). The megaspore in turn undergoes three mitotic divisions to give rise to the female megagametophyte, the embryo sac.

27

Meiosis

cell division that results in a reduction of ploidy

28

Meristem

meristematic cells are cells that have the ability to divide.

29

Microgametophyte

male heterosporous plant produce male gametes (sperm cells).

30

Microphyll

(micro = small, phyll = leaf) are leaves with a single vascular strand that evolved from sterile lateral sporangia in lycophytes. (simple leaves with a singular vascular strand derived from sterile lateral sporangia)