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RUSVM Toxic Plants > Plants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Plants Deck (22)
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1

Azalea, Rhododendron

Common Name: Azalea, Rhododendron
Scientific Name: Rhododendron spp.

Common Family Name: Heath family
Scientific Family Name: Ericaceae

Main toxic Principle: Grayanotoxins
Clinical Signs: GI signs, depression, tachycardia, tachypnea, seizures, and death is usually from aspiration pneumonia

2

American black nightshade

Common Name: American black nightshade
Scientific Name: Solanum americanum
Common Family Name: Nightshade family
Scientific Family Name:Solanaceae

Main toxic Principle: Solanine and solanidine alkaloids, ripe fruits have acetylcholine, nitrate in leaves
Clinical Signs: GI signs, signs similar to atropine

3

Avocado

Common Name: Avocado
Scientific Name: Persea americana
Common Family Name: Laurel family
Scientific Family Name: Lauraceae

Main toxic Principle: Unknown
Clinical Signs: Cardiotoxicity in goats, horses, rabbits, and caged birds, noninfectious mastitis and aglactica in cattle, horses, goats, and rabbits

4

Aloe

Common Name: Aloe
Scientific Name: Aloe vera
Common Family Name: Lily family
Scientific Family Name: Liliaceae

Main toxic Principle: Anthraquinone glycoside
Clinical Signs: Severe GI signs and diarrhea

 

5

Angel's trumpet

Common Name: Angel's trumpet
Scientific Name: Brugmansia candida
Common Family Name: Nightshade family
Scientific Family Name: Solanaceae

Main toxic Principle: Atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine
Clinical Signs: Mydriasis, dry mouth, tachycardia, hypertension, urine retention, hallucination, seizures

6

Akee

Common Name: Akee
Scientific Name: Blighia sapida
Common Family Name: Soapberry family
Scientific Family Name: Sapindaceae

Main toxic Principle: Hypoglycin A (amino acid), Hypoglycin B (dipeptide)
Clinical Signs: Severe hypoglycemia, vomiting and diarrhea

7

Air Potato

Common Name: Air potato
Scientific Name: Dioscorea bulbifera
Common Family Name: Yam family
Scientific Family Name: Dioscoreaceae

Main toxic Principle: Alkaloids, saponins, oxalates
Clinical Signs: Stinging, burning and swelling of the mouth and tongue, underground tuber has been fatal to pigs

8

Anthurium, Flamingo Plant

Common Name: Anthurium, Flamingo Plant
Scientific Name: Anthurium spp.
Common Family Name: Arum family
Scientific Family Name: Araceae

Main toxic Principle: Insoluble calcium oxalates
Clinical Signs: Irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting

9

Alsike clover

Common Name: Alsike clover
Scientific Name: Trifolium hybridum
Common Family Name: Pea family
Scientific Family Name: Fabaceae

Main toxic Principle: Unknown toxin that causes liver damage only in horses
Clinical Signs: Signs of hepatogenic photosensitization and hepatic encephalapathy in horses only

10

Aralia

Common Name: Aralia
Scientific Name: Polyscias spp.
Common Family Name: Ginseng family
Scientific Family Name: Araliaceae

Main toxic Principle: Alkylating agent, irritant saponins
Clinical Signs: Skin irritation, tachycardia, mydriasis, and seizure

11

Arrowhead vine, Nephtytis

Common Name: Arrowhead vine, Nephtytis
Scientific Name: Syngonium podophyllum
Common Family Name: Arum family
Scientific Family Name: Araceae

Main toxic Principle: Insoluble calcium oxalates
Clinical Signs: Irriation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting

12

Agave

Common Name: Agave
Scientific Name: Agave spp.
Common Family Name: Agave family
Scientific Family Name: Agavaceae

Main toxic Principle: Insoluble calcium oxalates
Clinical Signs: Irritation of lips, mouth, throat, vomiting

13

Balsam apple

Common Name: Balsam apple
Scientific Name: Momordica charantia
Common Family Name: Cucumber family
Scientific Family Name: Cucurbitaceae

Main toxic Principle: Alkaloid in leaves, seeds and unripe fruits, purgative oil in seeds, steroid glycoside in ripe fruits
Clinical Signs: Alkaloid is cathartic, oil is purgative, glycoside is hypoglyemic

14

Bay laurel

Common Name: Bay laurel
Scientific Name: Laurus nobilis
Common Family Name: Laurel family
Scientific Family Name: Lauraceae

Main toxic Principle: Essential oil
Clinical Signs: Ingestion of large amounts may cause mild GI sgin

15

Black Nightshade

Common Name: Black nightshade
Scientific Name: Solanum nigrum
Common Family Name: Nightshade family
Scientific Family Name: Solanaceae

Main toxic Principle: Solanine and solanidine alkaloids
Clinical Signs: Vomiting, mydriasis, drowsiness

16

Blue rattleweed

Common Name: Blue rattleweed
Scientific Name: Crotalaria verrucosa
Common Family Name: Pea family
Scientific Family Name: Fabaceae

Main toxic Principle: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids
Clinical Signs: Liver damage, hepatic photosensitization, hepatogenic encephalopathy

17

Bracken Fern

Common Name: Bracken fern
Scientific Name: Pteridium aquilinum
Common Family Name: Bracken fern family
Scientific Family Name: Pteridiaceae

Main toxic Principle: Ptaquiloside glycoside, thiaminase
Clinical Signs: Ptaquiloside causes aplastic anemia in cattle and sheep, enzootic bovine hematuria due to neoplasm in urinary tract; tumors of the upper digestive tract and retinal damage in sheep; thimainase causes vitamin B1 deficiency resulting in neurotoxicity in monkeys

18

Bloodberry

Common Name: Bloodberry
Scientific Name: Rivina humulis
Common Family Name: Pokeweed family
Scientific Family Name: Phytolaccaceae

Main toxic Principle: Triterpenoid saponins
Clinical Signs: Direct irritation of the GI mucosa and GI signs

19

Borage

Common Name: Borage
Scientific Name: Borago spp.
Common Family Name: Borage family
Scientific Family Name: Boraginaceae

Main toxic Principle: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids
Clinical Signs: Chronic consumption causes liver damage, hepatogenic encephalopathy, death

20

Butterfly Weed

Common Name: Butterfly weed
Scientific Name: Asclepias curassavica
Common Family Name: Milkweed family
Scientific Family Name: Asclepiadaceae

Main toxic Principle: Cardiac glycosides
Clinical Signs: Severe GI signs, dilated pupils, convulsions, respiratory signs, cardiac arrest

21

Barbados lily, Fire lily

Common Name: Barbados lily, Fire lily
Scientific Name: Hippeastrum puniceum
Common Family Name: Amaryllis family
Scientific Family Name: Amaryllidaceae

Main toxic Principle: Lycorine (phenanthridine alkaloid) in bulb
Clinical Signs: GI signs, paralysis, collapse

22