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Contemporary Social and Political Philosophy > Pluralism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pluralism Deck (10):

What is tolerance?

Thinking something is WRONG but still saying you will accept it


Standard critiques for moral relativism?

Going from is to ought- just bc there are differences, doesn't mean there are different morals
Sometimes the values are actually the same (burying the dead example)
What about serious critiques (FGM)? And we can critique our own culture


Standard critiques for universalism?

Where would these universal values come from?



I can't prove that there are universal standards for eval, but my culture is the best.


Political scientist version of pluralism

Description of the actual functioning of democracy, power in a democracy is dispersed amongst groups. Arg. against: Elitism (some groups get what they want, others don't)


Political philosophy version of pluralism

Description of the fact of a plurality of values. Many irreducible and incommensurable values. Arg. against: Monism


Most basic challenge of pluralism

Simple fact that ppl may cherish a variety of values that aren't always easy to reconcile


Normative THEORY of pluralism

That plurality of values cannot and shouldnt be tried to reconcile, or lexically ordered (some given priority over others).


Pluralism and liberalism, what is the liberal response to the problem pluralism presents to liberalism ?

Plur. traditionally challengers of liberalism (everyone has their personal freedoms, you may think whatever you like). But liberalism PREVENTS state from imposing values upon people, allows ppl to live according to their preferred values.


5 Pluralist challenges to liberalism

1) not all moral preferences can be accomodated by personal freedom (religious freedom vs religious duties- many religious ppl don't think of it as a personal choice, but their duty)
2) apparent "neutrality" of the liberal state is "particularity in disguise" (secularism is easier for atheists than for believers)
3) there are more values than personal freedom, and they may be incommensurable (it may conflict w equality and a sense of community- if rich ppl can go to better schools and poor ppl can only go to worse schools, less equality- but to solve the prob, lack of equality).
4) Liberalism response is undemocratic; "privatizes" all that is important to ppl. Depoliticizing things- doesn't allow ppl to be passionate about their values so as to put their values in place (like women's rights etc).
5) Liberalism seems to accpet values as"given", ignores fact that they're also formed and changed in public confrontation and debate