When we two parted quotes
“When we two parted In SILENCE AND TEARS, half broken-hearted, To SEVER for years, PALE GREW THY CHEEK and cold, COLDER THY KISS; Truly that hour foretold Sorrow to this.
The DEW of the morning Sunk chill on my BROW- It felt like the WARNING Of what I feel now Thy VOWS are all BROKEN And light is thy fame; I HEAR the name spoken, And share in its SHAME.
They name thee before me, A knell in mine ear; A SHUDDER comes O’ER ME- Why wert thou so dear? They know not I knew thee, Who knew thee TOO WELL- LONG, LONG shall I RUE thee, Too deeply to tell.
In secret we met- In silence I grieve, That THY HEART could forget, THY SPIRIT DECEIVE. If I should meet thee After LONG years, How should I GREET THEE? with SILENCE AND TEARS.
Backstory of when we two parted
Written by LORD BYRON (a romantic)
Had an affair (w lady Webster) and is jealous of her other affair.
Analysis of when we two parted
Cyclical structure w, ‘silence and tears’ to symbolise his continuous grief @ losing her (will never fade) and inability to move on.
Flashback to parting using metaphors within lexical field of death to reflect death of relationship and extreme severing of which he feels grief. ‘Pale grew thy cheek and cold, colder thy kiss’ emphasise her loss of warmth (love) and feeling. ‘Cheek’/‘kiss’ demonstrate physical affection.
Uses nature imagery, ‘dew’ and ‘light’ demonstrate his attempts at a new beginning but still is constantly reminded by loss via senses ‘hear thy name spoken’ ‘chill on my brow’. Present tense shows continuous loss and ‘broken vows’ show loyalty broken despite being an affair in ‘secrecy’.
‘Knell’ (funeral bell) links to death imagery and lovesickness until death.
Demonstrates uncertainty and doubt about long road ahead. ‘Long’ repeated to highlight emptiness of life w/o her.
Love’s philosophy and quotes
The fountains mingle with the RIVER And the rivers with the OCEAN, the winds of HEAVEN mix for EVER With a sweet emotion; Nothing in the world is single; All things by a LAW DIVINE In on another’s being MINGLE Why not I with THINE?
See the MOUNTAINS KISS HIGH HEAVEN And the waves CLASP one another; No sister-flower would be forgiven If it distain’d its brother: And the SUNLIGHT CLASPS THE EARTH, And the MOONBEAMS KISS THE SEA- What are all these kissing worth, If thou kiss not me?
Love’s philosophy backstory
Percy Bysshe Shelley (romantic)
A man seducing a woman but the woman isn’t replying (much like Porphyria’s lover).
Analysis of love’s philosophy
Uses nature imagery hinting at natural love that’s destined, from ‘river’ to the ‘ocean’ reflects his ever growing love for her (overcoming him w strength of love).
Uses words in angelic lexical field to show destined love and connotes eternity/ purity (god wants them to be together)
Uses lexical field of combining to show how nature of love and how things are stronger in pairs (growing strength of water that flows).
Both paragraphs finish with a rhetorical question showing unrequited love.
Puts ‘sunbeams’ and ‘moonlight’ close to demonstrate eternity of love.
Porphyria’s lover w quotes (long af)
The rain set early in to-night, The sullen wind was SOON AWAKE, It TORE the elm-tops down FOR SPITE, And DID ITS WORST to vex the lake: I LISTENED with HEART FIT TO BREAK.
When GLIDED in Porphyria; straight She SHUT THE COLD OUT and the storm, And KNEELED and made the CHEERLESS grate Blaze up, and all the cottage warm; Which done, she rose, and from her form Withdrew the dripping cloak and shawl, And laid her SOILED GLOVES by, untied Her hat and let her DAMP HAIR FALL, and, LAST, she sat down by my side And called me. When NO VOICE REPLIED, She PUT my arm ABOUT HER WAIST, And MADE her SMOOTH WHITE SHOULDER BARE, and all her YELLOW HAIR displaced, And, STOOPING, MADE MY CHEEK LIE THERE, and spread, o’er all, her YELLOW HAIR, MURMURING how she loved me- she TOO WEAK, FOR ALL HER HEART’S ENDEAVOUR, TO SET ITS STRUGGLING PASSION FREE FROM PRIDE AND VAINER TIES DISSEVER, And GIVE HERSELF TO ME FOR EVER. But passion sometimes would prevail, Nor could tonight’s gay feast RESTRAIN A sudden thought of one SO PALE For one of her, and all in vain: So, she was come THROUGH WIND AND RAIN. be sure I looked up at her eyes
Happy and proud; at last I knew Porphyria WORSHIPPED ME: surprise Made my heart SWELL, AND STILL IT GREW While I debated what to do. That moment she was MINE, MINE, FAIR, Perfectly PURE and good: I found A thing to do, and all her HAIR In one long YELLOW STRING I wound THREE TIMES HER LITTLE THROAT AROUND, And STRANGLED her. No pain felt she; I am QUITE SURE SHE FELT NO PAIN. As a SHUT BUD that holds a bee, I warily opened her lids: AGAIN LAUGHED the blue eyes WITHOUT A STAIN And I untightened next the tress About her neck; her cheek once more BLUSHED BRIGHT beneath my BURNING KISS: I PROPPED HER HEAD UP as before, Only, this time MY SHOULDER BORE Her head, which DROOPS upon it still: The SMILING ROSY LITTLE HEAD, so glad it has its upmost will, That all it scorned at once is fled, And I, its love, am gained instead! Porphyria’s love: she guessed not how Her darling one wish would be heard. And thus we sit together NOW, And ALL NIGHT LONG we have not stirred, And yet God has not said a word!
Backstory of Porphyria’s lover
Written by Robert Browning.
Porphyria is a disease that causes madness.
Tale of unrequited love (love’s philosophy), showing physical side of live in different light (violence and romance).
Explores relationship roles and betrayal.
Also relates to spiritual side of love, God not punishing others.
Analysis of Porphyria’s lover
Uses an unpredictable rhythm throughout the poem, mirroring the lover’s volatility and pathetic fallacy of storm outside.
‘Early’ suggests there’s something wrong with tonight and builds tension, especially w ‘wind… soon awake’ showing predator awake and waiting for prey patiently.
The contrast of loud storm vs ‘listened’ shows silence and so tension. ‘Heart fit to break’ hints that he’s just found out news about lover.
‘Glided’ verb shows lack of concern and so obliviousness of porphyria. Associated w warmth in house (warm w emotion). ‘Kneeled’ and ‘stooping’ connotes submission. ‘Soiled gloves’ hint at lover seeing her as having done impurities.
Length of time to sit down suggests that she has something to hide. ‘Last’ suggests that lover feel low in her priorities. ‘No voice replied’ after her call is a power move and suggests feelings of annoyance/ betrayal. Verbs ‘put’ and ‘made’ suggest she is making all effort in relationship and is dominant.
‘White shoulder bare’ demonstrate purity and physical side of love while her dominance by use of femininity.
Repetition of hair is symbol of femininity so strangling w hair is a symbolism of lover using her femininity (weakness) against her, jealous.
‘Struggling passion’ suggests that she’s trapped in his relationship.
Describes abnormal feeling ‘heart swell, and still it grew’ suggests Cant express feelings and so is overcome by an unhealthy love. Repeats ‘mine’.
Then still looks at her features of beauty, ‘blue eyes without a stain’ as they are preserved and he still doesn’t see her as dead.
He puts her head on his shoulder to demonstrate now her dependence on him (roles reversed).
In death he fixes her state of submission forever, preserving his masculinity and her purity.
Winter swans w quotes
The clouds had GIVEN THEIR ALL-
TWO DAYS OF RAIN and then a BREAK
In which we WALKED,
the WATERLOGGED earth
GULPING FOR BREATH AT OUR FEET
as we SKIRTED the lake, SILENT AND APART,
Until the swans came and stopped us
With a show of TIPPING IN UNISON.
As if rolling weights down their bodies to their heads
They HALVED themselves in the DARK WATER,
ICEBERGS OF WHITE FEATHER, paused before returning again
Like BOATS RIGHTING IN ROUGH WEATHER.
‘THEY MATE FOR LIFE’ you said as they left,
PORCELAIN over the STILLING WATER.i didn’t reply
But as we MOVED ON through the AFTERNOON LIGHT,
SLOW-STEPPING in the lake’s shingle and sand,
I noticed our hands, that had,somehow,
SWUM THE DISTANCE BETWEEN US
and FOLDED, ONE OVER THE OTHER,
LIKE A PAIR OF WINGS SETTLING AFTER FLIGHT.
Backstory of winter swans
Modern relationship going through rough patch of separation before getting back together.
Analysis of winter swans
Winter is dormant and cold (emotionless) but moves on to spring which is fresh beginning and growth (reuniting). Uses nature imagery (like love’s philosophy) to demonstrate natural love. Personification of clouds ‘given their all’ relate to lost hope of relationship and connote presence hanging above heads. The ‘two days of rain’ reflect intense fighting, walking verb suggests they are moving apart.
Adjective, ‘waterlogged’ suggested lack of breath in overwhelming relationship (irreparable?), linking to ‘gulping for breath at our feet’ showing their relationship is dying but they are doing nothing about it. ‘Skirting’ the fact it’s dying despite it being such an ominous and imposing presence (the lake).
Using the ‘swans’ (animals who mate for life) shows naturalness of love and connote romance and purity. Referring to them rolling weights demonstrate stresses of relationship being released.
The ‘dark water’ represents uncertainty and suggests that they took risks in their relationship. ‘Icebergs’ connote stability and support but may suggest hidden problems.
The speech breaks the silence, representing a breakthrough in the relationship w communication. Stilling water also implies a calming in the relationship (through rough patch).
‘Slow-stepping’ suggests they are being careful w relationship and ‘swum the distance between us’ shows both making effort to be together yet shows naturally meant to be together.
‘Settling after flight’ shows fight has pushed relationship to new heights.
Neutral tones quotes
We stood by a POND that WINTER day,
And the sun was WHITE, as though CHIDDEN OF GOD,
And a FEW leaves lay on the STARVING SOD;
– They had FALLEN from an ash, and were GRAY.
Your EYES ON ME were as eyes THAT ROVE
Over TEDIOUS RIDDLES OF YEARS AGO;
And some words played between us TO AND FRO
On which LOST THE MORE BY OUR LOVE.
The SMILE ON YOUR MOUTH was the DEADEST THING
ALIVE ENOUGH to have STRENGTH TO DIE;
And a GRIN OF BITTERNESS SWEPT thereby
Like an OMINOUS BIRD A-WING…
Since then, KEEN lessons that LOVE DECEIVES,
And WRINGS WITH WRONG, have shaped to me
Your face, and the GOD-CURST SUN, and a tree,
And a POND edged with GREYISH LEAVES.
Backstory of neutral tones
Thomas hardy was a writer in the time of the industrial revolution.
Pessimist and fear/dislike of change.
Analysis of neutral tones
The title suggests a bore, dullness and passivity to relationship.
To be ‘stood’ by the pond suggests lack of movement forwards in relationship (stagnation) linking to small, unmoving body of water (‘pond’). ‘Winter day’ shows pathetic fallacy as the relationship is cold/icy.
The ‘white’ sun connotes heavenliness and purity, linking to morals of relationship. ‘Chidden of God’ shows that they have been forbidden of something (‘Adam and eve?’) and perhaps represents image of society’s judgments.
A ‘few’ leaves suggests sparsity/lack of life in relationship leading to their laying on the ‘starving sod’ deprived of warmth and life yet linking to ‘sod’ and its naturalness of death.
‘Fallen’ May hint they have both failed in relationship, past tense showing irreversibility
‘Eyes on me’ demonstrates accusations/blame linking to ‘eyes that rove’ suggesting they are searching for a cause as to why relationship has ended. ‘Tedious riddles of long ago’ suggests ongoing,unintelligible grudges. ‘To and fro’ suggests shifting of blame.
They speak of ‘who lost the more by our love’ in past showing brokenness and regrets of their love (mistake/tragedy).
‘Smile on your mouth’ seems absurd in midst of bleak context, shedding a sinister light and lack of ability to convey love. Intensifier in ‘deadest thing’ shows many other things are also dead and ‘thing’ shows inanimate love. ‘Alive enough’ shows the fragmented remnants of the relationship enabling to have ‘strength to die’ showing mutual want of end to their love.
‘Grin of bitterness’ shows spite within juxtaposition.
‘Lessons’ that ‘love deceives’ (alliteration) shows he now can’t trust others as he used to, impact on life.
Alliteration, ‘wrings with wrong’ shows that it’s soaked in immorality w a caesura showing healing time.
‘God-curst sun’ has escalated from being ‘chidden’ showing pessimism accumulated through ending of the relationship, feeling doom and inevitability of the love to fail.
Cyclical structure mentioning ‘pond’ at end.
The farmer’s bride quotes
Three Summers since I CHOSE a maid, TOO YOUNG maybe - but more's to do At harvest-time than BIDE AND WOO. When us was wed she turned AFRAID OF LOVE AND ME AND ALL THINGS HUMAN; Like the shut of a WINTER’S day Her SMILE WENT OUT and 'TWASN’T A WOMAN - More like a LITTLE FRIGHTENED FAY. One night, in the Fall, she runned away. 'Out 'MONG THE SHEEP, her be,' they said, Should PROPERLY have been abed; But sure enough she wasn't there Lying awake with her WIDE BROWN STARE. So OVER seven-acre field and UP-ALONG ACROSS the down WE CHASED HER, flying like a HARE Before our lanterns. To Church-Town ALL IN A SHIVER AND A SCARE We CAUGHT HER, fetched her home at last And TURNED THE KEY UPON HER, FAST She does the work about the house As well as most, but like a MOUSE: Happy enough to chat and PLAY With BIRDS AND RABBITS and such as they, So long as MEN-FOLK keep away. 'Not near, not near!' her EYES BESEECH When one of US comes within reach. The WOMEN SAY that BEASTS IN STALL Look round like children at her call. I'VE HARDLY HEARD HER SPEAK AT ALL. Shy as a LEVERET, swift as he, Straight and SLIGHT as a young larch tree, SWEET as the first WILD violets, she, TO HER WILD SELF. BUT WHAT TO ME? The short days shorten and the oaks are brown, The blue smoke rises to the low grey sky, One leaf in the still air falls slowly down, A magpie's spotted feathers lie On the black earth spread white with rime, The berries redden up to Christmas-time. What's Christmas-time without there be Some OTHER in the house than we! She sleeps UP IN THE ATTIC there ALONE, POOR MAID. 'Tis BUT A stair Betwixt us. OH! MY GOD! the down, The SOFT YOUNG down of her; the brown, The brown of her - HER EYES, HER HAIR, HER HAIR!
Analysis of the farmer’s wife
Farmer’s perspective (dramatic monologue) demonstrates his freedom in expression while his bride is never named, lack of identity means she’s a representation of many women at time oppressed by men while highlighting her lack of voice. ‘I chose’ demonstrates it was an arranged marriage, allowing you to feel pity against the maid in contrast to the male’s freedom of choice in women. ‘Too young’ reflect innocence, vulnerability and naivety. The framed doesn’t show interest in ‘bide and woo’ telling us he’s practical and more invested in his farm work. She’s described as ‘afraid of love and me and all things human’ this shows the farmer’s idea of love as forced and awkward, while ‘me’ makes you feel pity for the farmer as usually after marriage you grow closer w partner. ‘All things human’ isolates the bride from humanity and society, showing she doesn’t believe in how it’s run. Comparing to ‘shut’ of a ‘winter’ day shows that she has cut him out coldly and The farmer feels distraught. ‘Her smile went out’ suggests loss of energy/happiness (hint at mentality?) which means she ‘twasnt a woman’ (against expectations of woman in society). Uses colloquial dialect to make farmer seem more personable/ reminder he’s one of a bigger society (their views). Alliteration (‘frightened Fay ‘) comparison to fairy shows he feels sympathy for her yet Cant understand why no communication.
‘Mong the sheep’ (sheepish) ‘her be,’they said’ represents society’s pressures on her as a woman, linking to why she ‘properly have been abed’ conveying the lack of physical romance in their relationship (still referred to as maid as hasn’t fulfilled vows). ‘Lying awake’ shows that she is restless, ‘wide, brown stare’ compares her to an animal being hunted (rabbit in headlights).
Prepositions use highlight extent to which they chased her.
She was ‘chased’ by connotations of predators (‘hare’) highlighting how she was no match against the men’s power. ‘We’ against ‘her’ shows how she was ganged up on. She was ‘caught’ and locked, suggesting entrapment in marriage. She does work suggesting she does all other wifely duties apart from physical affection, ‘as well as most’ tells us expectancy of all women to clean. Reference to a ‘mouse’ increases vulnerability along w the ‘birds’ and ‘rabbits’ she ‘plays’ with which connoting childlike play (unable to communicate w normal people suggesting hysteria). Androphobic. Italics in ‘I’ve hardly heard her speak at all’ shows farmer’s increasing irritability yet how he doesn’t know her well.
Is still keen on her, comparing her to nature with which he understands but doesn’t understand why she won’t speak to him (‘but what to me?’)
The next stanza conveys time passing as seasons. While seasons are changing, their relationship is not. Farmer wants children but is distraught she won’t be with him, Xmas warmth contrasting w her distancing herself coldly. He says, ‘alone, poor maid.’ Showing his pity for her yet how society means he thinks it is the only choice to lock in attic. ‘‘Tis but a stair’ decreases space between them, suggesting he’s closer to her?
Iambic tetrameter breaks down suggesting loss of control of farmer to rape her. Again ‘down’ links her to animal and vulnerability to him.
Caesuras convey alarm. Hair is also mentioned like in porphyria’s lover as sign of femininity
Walking away quotes
It is eighteen years ago, ALMOST TO THE DAY–
A sunny day with LEAVES JUST TURNING,
The touch-lines new-ruled – since I watched you play
Your first game of football, then, LIKE A SATELLITE
WRENCHED FROM ITS ORBIT, GO DRIFTING AWAY
BEHIND A SCATTER OF BOYS. I can SEE
YOU walking away from ME towards the school
With the pathos of a HALF-FLEDGED THING SET FREE
INTO A WILDERNESS, the gait of one
Who finds NO PATH WHERE THE PATH SHOULD BE.
That HESITANT FIGURE, EDDYING away
Like a WINGED SEED LOOSENED FROM ITS PARENT STEM,
Has something I never quite GRASP to convey
About NATURE’S GIVE-AND-TAKE – the SMALL, the SCORCHING
ORDEALS WHICH FIRE ONE’S IRRESOLUTE CLAY.
I have had worse partings, but none that so
GNAWS AT MY MIND STILL. Perhaps it is roughly
Saying what GOD alone could perfectly show –
How SELFHOOD BEGINS WITH A WALKING AWAY,
And love is PROVED in the LETTING GO.
Backstory of walking away
Cecil day Lewis was brought up by father w high expectations and was alienated by him.
Had 4 sons attending boarding school.
Walking away analysis
‘Almost to the day’ shows that it’s still a key moment in life. ‘Leaves just turning’ suggests new beginnings along w season changes. ‘Like a satellite’ simile is a natural occurrence and is enjambed into ‘wrenched from its orbit, go drifting away’ wrenched is past tense and is a sudden, violent and painful separation from its ‘orbit’ which is a normal and safe place to be (‘father’s safety’). ‘Drifting’ is present continuous showing ongoing distancing of son from father in a state of no control/purpose.
He can ‘see’ boy showing vividness of memory and impact on him. Pronouns of ‘you walking away from me’ demonstrate the boy walking away from father, hinting fathers feeling of loss and doesn’t want to let go. Noun ‘pathos’ evokes pity. ‘Half-fledged thing’ suggests boy isn’t ready to go out into world (bird comparison) and ‘thing’ shows his lack of identity in world. ‘Wilderness’ reveals father’s feelings of danger for child going into chaos. ‘No path where the path should be’ displays child finding way in life, suggesting usually path is laid out for him (sense of independence). ‘Hesitant figure’ suggests nerve while ‘figure’ shows already his father is far from him and doesn’t know him as well. He compares him to ‘a winged seed loosened from its parent stem’. ‘Winged’ suggests he has the ability to fly and ‘seed’ conveys ability to grow as person. ‘Parent stem’ was once seed, showing ritualistic and natural occurrence. Verb ‘grasp’ shows father’s unwillingness to let go. Caesura after ‘gnaws at my mind still’ shows permanent impact on his life. Reference to God links w Jesus as sacrifice, suggesting it’s for greater good. ‘Selfhood begins w a walking away’ an action so small such as walking can have big effect on child’s life to be more independent. He knows he has to let go to help child, contrasting w ‘mother any distance’.
Mother, any distance quotes
Mother, any distance greater than a single span
requires a second pair of hands.
You come to help me measure WINDOWS, PELMETS, DOORS,
the ACRES OF WALLS, the PRAIRIES of the FLOORS.
YOU at the ZERO-END, ME with the spool of tape, recording
length, reporting METRES, CENTIMETRES BACK TO BASE, then leaving
up the stairs, the line STILL FEEDING OUT, UNREELING
years between us. ANCHOR. KITE.
I SPACE-WALK through the EMPTY bedrooms, CLIMB
the ladder to the LOFT, to BREAKING POINT, where SOMETHING HAS TO GIVE;
two floors below your fingertips STILL PINCH
the LAST ONE-HUNDREDTH of an inch…I REACH
towards a HATCH that opens on an ENDLESS sky
to FALL OR FLY.
Mother, any distance analysis
Poem is in loose sonnet structure of modern style family (parent child) relationship. Differs from walking away as is in child’s perspective.
‘Requires 2nd pair of hands’ shows his dependence on mother, sees as caring and helpful role. ‘Windows, pelmets, doors,’ all are small and closed representing seemingly impossible challenges to face. ‘Acres of walls, the prairies of the floors’ shows how much of the world child is yet to discover, showing there’s seemingly more challenge to a problem up close. Rhyming couplets of, ‘floors’ and ‘doors’ link w symmetry in the relationship. Pronouns ‘you’ and ‘me’ highlight growing distance between them. ‘Zero-end’ suggesting safety before caesura widening gap between pronouns. ‘Spool of tape’ still attached to mother links to umbilical chord and constant support from mother. Uses continuous verbs, ‘back to base’ suggests constant reliance on mother before reaching higher and higher limits (‘stairs’). ‘Unreeling’ suggests lack of control when too far away. ‘Anchor’ suggests safety yet limiting of capabilities and entrapment (represents mum) contrasting to ‘kite’ which is unstable and dependent on wind yet is free. ‘Space-walk’ is a great feat demonstrating child’s proudness yet instability almost taking first steps into world. Astronauts are still connected to rockets. ‘Empty’ bedrooms signifies new beginnings and complete closure in separation, verb, ‘climb’ connotes success and the active movement away from mother to go up in life. ‘Breaking point ‘ shows he has no choice but to move out and ‘something has to give’ showing inevitability of independence.
‘2 floors below’ is a v wide gap now showing how time has moved as they are distanced apart. ‘Pinch’ of mother’s fingers shows her reluctance to let go. ‘Hatch’ double meaning shows chick birth or entrapment, shows its his choice as for which path to take. ‘Endless sky’ links to prairies and amount that is to be discovered in the world of opportunities. Alliteration of ‘fall or fly’ is showing the pressure on him to succeed or fail.
Sonnet 29 poem quotes
‘My thoughts do twine and bud… as wild vines’
‘Who art dearer, better!’
‘Renew… rustle thy boughs and set thy trunk all bare,’
Backstory of sonnet 29
Told by Elizabeth Barrett Browning (wife of Robert Browning)
Married Robert despite father’s wishes.
Is a Petrarchan sonnet (traditionally about love- often unrequited)
Lover is the tree.
Analysis of sonnet 29
‘Thee!’ Repetition shows focus on lover, exclamative demonstrates passion and excitement in their love (hint at lack of control?) < emphasised by caesura. Says that thoughts, ‘twine and bud’, suggesting a new, fresh romance that is constantly changing and growing, excited by this prospect. Although could be hinted is moving too quickly as ‘soon there’s nought to see’.
‘Wild vines’ shows that she is unable to control her love/obsession for him. ‘Broad leaves’ of the tree (representing lover) suggests support and strength in relationship. Calls him ‘my palm-tree’ showing possessiveness. Uses imperatives such as ‘renew’ and ‘rustle’ suggesting that she may be the stronger figure in relationship contradicting with broad leaves, (tired of being stronger figure in relationship?). Intensifiers, ‘dearer, better!’ Again show passion yet a longing ness for more out of the relationship, feels can’t get enough. ‘Instantly’ portrays desperation for his presence, combining w imperatives as merciful. ‘Set thy trunk all bare’ suggests only in his presence is she free yet a feeling of vulnerability.
Verb, ‘insphere’ illustrate thoughts as restrictive. ‘-burst, shattered, everywhere!’ Caesuras reveals inability to control feelings for him while representing restrictions being released step by step. ‘Breathe’ and ‘new air’ portray lover as lifegiving. Is only when she is with him she can feel free again without thinking of him.
Sonnet 29 comparisons
‘New air’ and lie correspond w that of letters from Yorkshire.
Letters from Yorkshire quotes
‘First lapwings return’ ‘Knuckles singing’ ‘Not romance, simply how things are.’ ‘You out there” ‘Seeing the seasons’ ‘Heartful of headlines’ ‘Is your life more real because you dig and sow?’ ‘Clearing a path through the snow’ ‘Pouring air and light into an envelope’ “Same news in different houses,’ ‘Souls tap out messages across the icy miles.’
Letters from Yorkshire analysis
Features themes of communication/ news/ seasons/nature. Uses nature to suggest new life and freshness to relationship despite distance between them, contrasting with ways of life. The fact that the unnamed companion / lover (never specified) comes indoors to write to the author tells us is his sense of reprieve from nature and work. The personification of his, ‘knuckles singing’ link to his happiness at the prospect of her yet pain of cold outdoors (double meaning). The verb, ‘reddened’ means warmth which connotes warmth and love. The author describes their relationship as, ‘not romance, simply how things are.’ Suggesting that love is simple, going against expectations of a love poem. ‘You out there’ shows that she’s addressing the man who seems to be in completely different surroundings, somewhat more free, ‘out there’. Enjambment continues their connection despite time passing via seasons and nature. Use of pronouns, ‘you’ and ‘me’ in separate sentences emphasises distance between them. Alliteration, ‘heartful of headlines’ perhaps suggests lack of real love in her heart, just love for journalism < gets too caught up in unnatural world? ‘Blank screen’ suggests it’s worthless and she feels that she’s not making an impact in the real world, links to her question later suggesting she feels unconnected from the ground and nature.
‘You wouldn’t say so’ demonstrates how well she knows the guy, imagery of ‘breaking ice’ demonstrates his ability to take charge in the relationship. ‘Clearing a path’ indicates his strong connection despite feelings of entrapment. ‘Pouring air and light’ metaphor shows breath from city life (feels suffocation). ‘Same news in different houses’ shows connection via headlines while highlighting distance through juxtaposition. ‘Souls tap out’ shows soulmates (Plato theory)
Context of the farmers bride
Written during 19 century by Charlotte Mew.
Based within farming community in which marriages were often organised according to valuable family matches and convenience.
Mental illness affected Charlotte and her family, pledging never to marry.
Source of inspiration for bride’s depiction in poem.
Similarities between Porphyria’s lover and the farmer’s bride
Males are both asserting dominance over their female companion as both from males perspective so which women have no voice.
‘Only, this time my shoulder bore her head.’ PL
Both feature mental illness> ‘chat and play. With birds and rabbits such as they.’TFB
Both feature sinister endings involving feminine characteristics being used against a woman, ‘maid’ (suggestions of rape) TFB and ‘her hair in one long yellow string I wound, three times her little throat around.’ PL
Both use nature.
Both talk of possession (‘give herself to me forever’ PL // ‘My bride’ TFB)
Both make use of levels (PL ‘I looked up at her eyes’ / ‘sleeps up in the attic there’)
Both inflicted by society as feel have to carry out actions in order to maintain dominance (‘and yet god has not said a word!’)
Differences between porphyria’s lover and the farmer’s bride
While the lover in Porphyrias lover shows love and affection (‘she shut out the cold’ < bringing literal warmth to life via coming in it), the lover in The farmer’s bride is cutting him off, ‘like the shut of a winter’s day.’ And is attempting to leave marriage in which she feels trapped, Porphyria is free to come and go within relationship, ultimately leading to her death as lover wants to fix her state of submission forever so she can’t leave. While Porphyria is fully dedicated to lover, isn’t enough. TFB is unsatisfied with relationship too, ‘but what to me?’
PL shows preservation of purity and beauty, ‘without a stain’ suggests he feels he needed to do it for own good (society means he has to) whereas TFB shows a ruining of beauty and life, ‘smile went out’. Went against expectations of women at time (submissive).
Similarities between the farmer’s bride and Singh song
Both are arranged marriages and cause you to question societies views on them, SS forces you to question dated ideas of loveless arranged marriages where as Charlotte forces question of young women married off ‘too young maybe’.
Both from males viewpoints and think of pride as their possession.
Both women go against expectations of society (‘eyes ov a gun’ < women shouldn’t be underestimated / ‘tartan sari’
Differences between the farmer’s bride and Singh song
SS defies stereotypes of Indian love with a range marriages, (‘priceless baby’) While TFB is Loveless and unconsummated in a time in which organised marriages were very common. Farmer is therefore lusting after physically/emotionally unobtainable wife.
Relationship is old in TFB (‘three summers since I chose a maid’) whereas SS is new and exciting, ‘my bride’ < still sees her in same light as on wedding day. Also TFB sees a different person than on wedding day ‘turned afraid’.
The male authors both have different views of women, although both feel possessive of partners, SS uses “my bride “ as a sense of proudness at new wife (‘eyes ov a gun’
Similarities w sonnet 29 and the farmer’s bride
In both, Lovers perspective isn’t mentioned. Both seem to feel dependent on the male (‘as a strong tree should.’)
Both refer to lovers as objects of nature, ‘wild vines, about a tree.’/‘sweet as the first wild violets she to her wild self. But what to me?’
Both explore ideas of distance within each as both show impatience at the separation from their partner, sometimes to a sinister point.
Both show elements of a possession/Session hinting at a lack of control. (‘I will not have my thoughts instead of thee.’/‘burst, shattered, everywhere!’) (‘her eyes, her hair, her hair!’)
Differences between sonnet 29 and the farmer’s bride
Sonnet 29 displays the females voice from a female perspective, using imperative to indicate a strong female role equal to that of the partner (‘renew thy presence’) Whereas TFB is written from a male point of view, betraying partner as inferior and weak (‘chased her like a hare’).
The adjective wild is used in different contexts with in the text, while S29 shows a spontaneity and freedom to her love, Charlotte presents the partner as hysterical.
Rhythm in S 29 stays constant much like that of their love Whereas TFB displays a Volta from an iambic tetrameter to out of control due to the changing atmosphere and sinister ending of the poem (‘her eyes, her hair, her hair!’).
Loss of control in S 29 is more passionate and describes the freedom of ‘Bands of greenery which insphere thee.’ Suggesting they once hid their relationship from the world. The breakdown in speech via the use of Caesuras Indicate a sinister motive and complete breakdown in mental state in the previously patient Farmer.
In S 29 society (father) Has kept them apart whereas the society over TFB has pushed them together otherwise allowing them to repel so strongly, ‘turned afraid, of love and me’
Eden rock context
Charles Causley’s father died when he was 15. Work characterised by simplicity