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Flashcards in Poetry Terms Deck (81):
1

Allegory

Narrative or description having a second meaning beneath the surface one

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Alliteration

Repetition at close intervals of the initial consonant sounds of accented syllables or important words

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Allusion

Reference, explicit or implicit to something in previous literature or history

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Anaphora

Repetition of an opening word or phrase in a series of lines

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Apostrophe

Figure of speech in which someone absent or dead or something nonhuman is addressed as it were alive and present

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Assonance

Repetition at close intervals of the vowel sounds of accented syllables or important words

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Aubade

Poem about dawn, a morning love song, or a poem about the parting of lovers at dawn

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Ballad

Fairly short narrative poem written in a songlike stanza form

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Blank verse

Unrimed iambic pentameter

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Cacophony

Harsh, discordant, unpleasant-sounding choice and arrangement of sounds

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Caesura

Natural pause, unmarked by punctuation, introduced by phrasing or syntax of a line

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Connotation

Suggestion of a word beyond its basic definition

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Consonance

Repetition at close intervals of the final consonant sounds of accented syllables or important words

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Continuous form

Form of a poem in which the lines follow each other without formal grouping, the only breaks being dictated by units of meaning

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Couplet

Two successive lines linked by rhyme, usually in the same meter

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Denotation

Basic definition of a word

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Didactic poetry

Having teaching or preaching as the primary purpose

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Dramatic framework

Situation, whether actual or fictional, realistic or fanciful, in which an author places his or her characters in order to express the theme

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Dramatic irony

Device by which the author implies a different meaning from that intended by the speaker in a literary work

20

English (Shakespearean) sonnet

Sonnet riming ababcdcdefefgg. Its content or structure ideally parallels the rime scheme, falling into three coordinate quatrains and a concluding couplet; but it is often structured, like the Italian sonnet, into octave and sestet, the principal break in though coming at the end of the eighth line

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Euphony

Smooth, pleasant-sounding choice and arrangement of sounds

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Extended figure

Figure of speech (usually a metaphor, simile, personification, or apostrophe) sustained or developed thought a considerable number of lines or through a whole poem

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Figurative language

Language employing figures of speech; language that cannot be taken literally or only literally

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Fixed form

Form of poem in which the length and pattern are prescribed by previous usage or tradition, such as sonnet, limerick, villanelle, haiku, and so on

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Form

External pattern or shape of a poem, describable without reference to its content, as continuous form, stanzaic form, fixed form (and other varieties), free verse, and syllabic verse

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Free verse

Nonmetrical verse, arranged in lines, may be more or less rhythmical, but has no fixed metrical pattern or expectation

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Gustatory imagery

Imagery describing gut feelings

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Haiku

Three-line poem, conceived of fixed lines that are 5, 7, 5 syllables respectively, generally concerned with nature and a single image

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Hyperbole

Overstatement, figure of speech in which exaggeration is used in the service of truth

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Imagery

Representation of language through sense experience

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Implied metaphor

That in which the literal term is implied and the figurative term named

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Internal rhyme

Rhyme in which one or both of the rhyme-words occur within the line

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Irony

Situation or use of language involving some kind of incongruity or discrepancy

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Situational irony

Situation in which there is an incongruity between actual circumstances and those that would seem appropriate or between what is anticipated and what actually comes to pass

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Italian (Petrachan) sonnet

Sonnet consisting of an octave riming abbaabba and of a sestet using any arrangement of two or three additional rhymes, such as cdcdcd or cdecde

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Kinesthetic imagery

Movement, physical tension

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Limerick

Fixed form consisting of five lines of anapestic meter, the first two trimeter, the next two dimeter, the last line trimeter, riming aabba; used exclusively for humorous or nonsense verse

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Metaphor

Figure of speech in which an implicit comparison is made between two things essentially unlike. No like or as. Implied. figure of speech broadly any way of saying something other than the ordinary way, more narrowly a way of saying one thing or meaning another

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Meter

Regularized rhythm; an arrangement of language in which the accents occur at apparently equal intervals in time

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Metonymy

Figure of speech in which some significant aspect or detail of an experience is used to represent the whole experience (the use of something closely related for the thing actually meant)

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Named metaphor

In which the literal term is named and figurative term implied

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Octave

1.) An 8 line stanza 2.) The first 8 lines of a sonnet, especially one structure in the manner of an Italian sonnet

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Olfactory imagery

Imagery describing smells

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Onomatopoeia

Use of words that supposedly mimic their meaning in their sound

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Organic imagery

Inside of you imagery, internal sensation, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sickness

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Overstatement

Hyperbole, figure of speech in which exaggeration is used in the service of truth

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Oxymoron

Compact paradox in which two successive words seemingly contradict each other

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Paradox

Statement or situation containing apparently contradictory or incompatible elements

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Paraphrase

Restatement of the content of a poem designed to make its prose meaning as clear as possible

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Personification

Figure of speech in which human attributes are given to an animal, an object, or a concept

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Poetry

Literary work in which special intensity is given to the expression of feelings and ideas by the use of distinctive style and rhythm

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Prose

Nonmetrical language; the opposite of verse

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Prose meaning

Part of poem's total meaning that can be separated out and expressed through paraphrase

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Quatrain

1.) 4 line stanza. 2.) 4 line division of a sonnet marked off by its rhyme scheme

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Refrain

Repeated word, phrase, line, or group of lines, normally at some fixed position in a poem written in stanzaic form

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Rhetorical poetry

Uses artificially eloquent language, that is, language too high-flown for its occasion and unfaithful to the full complexity of human experience

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Rhythm

Any wavelike recurrence of motion or sound

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Rhyme

Repetition of the accented vowel sound and all succeeding sounds in important or importantly positioned words

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Run-on line

Line which has no natural speech pause at its end, allowing the sense to flow uninterruptedly into the succeeding line

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Sarcasm

Bitter or cutting speech; speech intended by its speaker to give pain to the person addressed

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Satire

Kind of literature that ridicules human folly or vice with the purpose of brining about reform or of keeping others from falling into a similar folly or vice

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Sentimentality

Aimed primarily at stimulating the emotions rather than at communicating experience honestly and freshly

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Simile

Figure of speech in which an explicit comparison is made between two things essentially unlike. the comparison is made by using words such as like or as, than, similar too

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Sonnet

Fixed form of fourteen lines, normally iambic pentameter, with a rime scheme conforming to or approximating one of two main types - the Italian or the English

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Stanza

Group of lines whose metrical pattern (and usually its rime scheme as well) is repeated throughout a poem

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Structure

Internal organization of a poem's content

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Symbol

Figure of speech in which something (object, person, situation, or action) means more than what it is. a symbol may be read literally and metaphorically

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Synechdoche

Figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole. In this book it is subsumed under metonymy

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Synesthesia

Presentation of one sense experience in terms usually associated with another sensation

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Tactile imagery

Describes feeling something (like with your hands)

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Tercet

3 line stanza

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Terza rima

Interlocking rhyme scheme with the pattern aba bcb cdc, etc

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Theme

Central theme of a literary work

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Tone

Writer's or speaker's attitude toward his subject, his audience, or himself

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Total meaning

Total experience communicated by a poem, it includes all those dimensions of experience by which a poem communicates sensuous, emotional imaginative and intellectual and it can be communicated in no other words than those of the poem itself

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Understatement

Figure of speech that consists of saying less than one means, or of saying what one means with less force than the occasion warrants

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Verbal irony

Figure of speech in which what is meant is the opposite of what is said

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Verse

Metrical language; the opposite of prose

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Villanelle

Nineteen-line fixed form consisting of five tercets rhymed aba and a concluding quatrain rhymed abaa, with lines 1 and 3 of the first tercent serving as rerains in an alternating pattern through line 15 and then repeated as lines 18 and 19

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Accent, stress

Syllable given more prominence in pronunciation

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Foot

Basic unit used in the measurement of metrical verse