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What was the PoG?

In the late Autumn and early winter of 1536 H8 faced the greatest challenge to his throne.


When did the Lincolnshire Rising start?

Oct 1536- in many ways a prelude to the PoG. Although only over a fortnight it inspired and gave the pilgrims an example of how to raise a full-scale rebellion.


Why did the rebels of the LR present the govt with a serious challenge?

Although the rebels dispersed easily, there are 2 reasons why serious challenge:
-The LR was not just caused by the commons, but was led & instigated by the gentry and well-to-do.
-The rebels were able to raise a significant force of c.40,000 men v. quickly.

... Consequently, the govt was forced to bring in outside troops to put down the rising.


What sparked the LR?

-L was a hotbed of rumours in autumn 1536 as 3 govt commissions were at work:
1) overseeing the closure of the smaller monasteries.
2)assessing and collecting the 1536 subsidy.
3)examining the state of the clergy.

The activities of these commissioners created further rumours of new taxes, the seizure of goods and even the closure of some churches. So hardly surprising that when one visited a church in Louth, where its inhabitants were v. proud of the new spire, he was seized by men guarding the church and its treasure.


What happened in the LR?

The seizure of the commissioner was the signal for a full-scale rising to begin. A local force was assembled (paid from church funds) and its numbers swelled as news spread. Within days a force of c.40k well armed and disciplined men had been assembled. They then marched to Lincoln where they were welcomed.

Here they drew up a set of articles and sent them to london. However, king threatened severe punishments if they did not disperse so the leadership was forced to surrender as they knew that further action was treason and that the chance of victory was remote. Seized the first offer that king made to them: that he would consider their demands if they went home peacefully. Little did they know that H8 wanted to make an example of them by executing the leaders but he was waylaid by the PoG.


Whose rebellion was the LR? (GENTRY)

LR was instigated and led by the gentry- govt usually relies on them to quell a rebellion. However, not all took part willingly- some were threatened with loss of goods or life. Difficult to refuse which suggests that many were coerced into taking part.

Although, Nicholas Leche (the priest) testified in his examination that some of the gentry tried to control the rising.

However, some of those involved that the rebels did NOTHING w/o the permission of the gentry but this can be seen as a sign of respect for their superior social position. Many gentry wrote to H8 arguing that their plan was to control the rebellion (bullshit- trying to excuse their behaviour). Perhaps gentry got involved to prevent the plebs from becoming too destructive and excessive in their demands: gentry have the most to lose and were fearful of rebels destroying their property and goods. This interpretation does seem plausible as they soon came to an agreement w/ H8 when possible.


Whose rebellion was the LR? (monks and clergy)

Little doubt they played a significant role in the rising. Hardly surprising as church had suffered most from changes under TC and had every reason to believe further change was possible. Supported the Louth rebels with funds. Also evidence that parish clergy helped to mobilise the movement & monks from some of the local monasteries joined the rebellion.


Whose rebellion was the LR? (commons)

They also had a great deal to fear: their lives were changing rapidly and they thought further change was inevitable. But difficult to ascertain their exact role. Social structure of society meant that they would automatically look to their superiors for leadership & involvement in order to give movement a sense of legitimacy. They'd also want the gentry to articulate their views and express them to those in authority. Even in unstable times they expected leadership from social superiors.


Whose rebellion was the LR? (conclusion)

Almost impossible to be certain c. motives of rebels. Historians are uncertain but perhaps our clearest understanding comes from its symbol: the rebels' banner depicted the FIVE WOUNDS OF CHRIST, a chalice (clergy), a plough (commons) and a horn (gentry). Possible that the banner shows that all three estates were united against H8. If true- shows a complex interrelationship between the different social groups.


When did the PoG start?

Oct 8th 1536 whilst LR was still under way, and lasted until a pardon was issued on Dec 6th 1536.


Links between LR and PoG

LR provided pilgrims w/ both inspiration & an example. Both rebellions had rebels recruited from all social groups and were led by local gentry. The armies were paid for from donations (mainly from the church) and all those involved took an oath.


3 phases of PoG

1)OCT: when the people mobilised.
2)NOV: when a truce was arranged.
3)DEC: culminated in a general pardon.


Who was Robert Aske?

Rising began in S. Yorkshire and soon came under the control of Aske. Provided rising w/ high quality leadership- came from a leading family in Yorkshire but was also a layer who'd experience of London and the N. Brought intelligence, debating skills and v. good organisational skills to the rising, ergo ensuring that the rebels were well disciplined and appeared as an army, rather than an uncontrollable rabble. Aske named the rising the "PoG" (superb piece of propaganda!!) which ensured that it would appeal to the widest possible no. and ensured that copies of the oath taken by the LR men were distributed and taken by ALL the rebels.


1st phase of PoG

By Oct 16th, Aske entered York w/ c.10k men and was welcomed warmly. Soon mayor handed them York and Aske had sent him a copy of the rebels' demands (v. similar to those of the LR). Other areas also rose, so that at his height there were 9 REGIONAL ARMIES in the N covering Northumberland, N. Yorkshire, Durham and Cumberland. Was a great military achievement and meant that PoG became a serious military threat w/ c.30k well-armed men who'd taken the oath.

The armies were led by nobles/gentry. Lord Latimer & Sir Christopher Danby took Barnard Castle and then proceeded to pillage the BoDurham's castle at Bishop Auckland. Although there was less support for the rising W of the Pennines, where EoDerby supported H8, musters took place at Kirkby Stephen and Penrith in Westmorland.

Govt was not prepared for such a large scale rising, many of H8's forces still dealing with the aftermath of LR. Meanwhile another royal force under EoShrewsbury had reached Nottingham & was waiting orders In the N the royal castle of Pontefract was under control of Lord Darcy. He sent S for help, arguing that castle was in poor condition and that loyalty of the 300 troops there was dubious. A week later, on Oct 21st, PC surrendered w/o a single blow. However, Darcy's support for the rising and his production of badges for the pilgrims confirmed H8's fears c. his loyalty.

Meanwhile, Aske's 30k force made its way to PC, where on 27th Oct they met the DoNorfolk and his force of 8k men. Although some pilgrims wanted to fight, Aske dissuaded them and began to negotiate w/ DoN, showing that his purpose was not a military style campaign. Pilgrims' demands were vague & DoN was able to win over their confidence. Was agreed that pilgrims would send 2 reps over to London to present their demands to H8,


2nd phase of PoG

Whilst pilgrims waited for H8's response there was an uneasy truce between the 2 forces. H8 responded by rejecting the pilgrims' demands, stating that they were too vague and asking for their clarification to be given to DoN. However, in attempt to end the PoG he promised a pardon to all bar ringleaders- hoping they would disperse like in LR. At the same time he told DoN to agree to their demands while he figured out what to do. Meanwhile the 2 reps- BOWES & ELLERKER- had returned from their meeting with H8 & assured pilgrims of H8's good faith- encouraged them to clarify their demands.


3rd phase of PoG

Began w/ H8 telling DoN to issue a general pardon to prolong the truce and with the pilgrims issuing their 24 articles- were drawn up by Aske in consultation w/ Darcy, but were then approved by all the pilgrim captains so that they contained all the views of the North. The next day Aske announced the terms to the pilgrims who were convinced they'd won a great victory. DoN convinced them that H8 was grateful to the rebels for opening his eyes to the problems. As a result the pardon was issued and the rebels dispersed and Aske himself submitted. He then traveled to London at H8's request where he was showered w/ gifts. Whilst w/ H8 he wrote down all that had happened so H8 was better informed.

Aske had in fact fallen for a confidence trick & this was further shown when he returned N and spoke of the good faith of H8. It APPEARED as if the rising was over and the pilgrims had been successful in forcing the King to agree to their demands. However, events in Cumberland would change everything...


What did the Dodds believe was the true cause of the PoG?

They argued that it was an attempt to reverse the religious changes that H8 had carried out. There's certainly much evidence to support this view as many of the rebels acted as if they were primarily motivated by religious factors. Recent historians have CHALLENGED this view.


What did Elton say about religion being the cause of PoG?

"the religious purpose of the Pilgrimage had shallow roots, except amongst the few who dominated its ideology, eloquence and propaganda."


What was the cause of the PoG?

This interpretation is supported by both the name given to the rising & much of the symbolism associated with it. The banner depicted the five wounds of Christ , and the oath contained the statement that they were acting in the name of Christ. Even