Flashcards in Posterior Abdominal Wall Deck (78)
Give a list of retroperitoneal structures that are primarily retroperitoneal. What does it mean to be primarily retroperitoneal?
Primarily Retroperitoneal means that developmentally they started outside of the peritoneum and they finished that way.
Sympathetic Trunk + Branches to Ganglia
Thoracic Duct + Cisterna Chyli
Posterior Abdominal Wall
Aorta & IVC
What is the relationship b/w the rectum & the peritoneum?
The rectum is both retroperitoneal & subperitoneal.
The superior portion is retro & has peritoneum on its anterior surface. The middle & inferior portions are below the floor of the peritoneum & are not covered at all in it.
Double folds of peritoneum = ?
What runs thru this structure?
blood vessels/vasculature stuff runs thru it
What 2 ligaments make up the lesser omentum?
What is the relationship b/w the lesser omentum & the lesser sac?
The lesser omentum is on the anterior surface of the lesser sac.
With the gastrosplenic ligament...the peritoneum comes from ___ & reflects ____.
Comes from the stomach & reflects onto the spleen.
Which kidney is typically lower? Why?
The right kidney b/c the liver is pushing down on it.
Which ribs typically cover the right & left kidney?
Right Kidney: typically covered by only 12th rib
Left Kidney: typically covered by 11th & 12th rib
What is the renal fascia?
It surrounds the kidneys...it is essentially a continuation of the kidney's vasculature or adventitia...
What is the order of protective layers starting from the peritoneum & ending up in the kidney?
Describe the blood supply to the kidneys.
Renal arteries come off of the aorta near the SMA & divide into anterior & posterior segmental branches (to go to the 2 lobes of the kidney)...
There will also be polar branches from the kidney's development & ascent.
What are 3 sources of blood supply for the ureter?
Describe the functional sphincter of the ureter.
It enters the bladder at a diagonal so that when the bladder fills it pushes up against it & doesn't back flow.
What are 3 sites of potential narrowing of the ureter where kidney stones can get stuck?
transition from pelvis to ureter
entry into bladder
How many layers of muscle does the ureter have?
3--very muscular, can propel urine!!
Describing in terms of vertebrae-->what are 2 locations where kidney stones might get stuck?
the ureter enters the bladder @ the point where...
at the point where the common iliac divides into the internal & external iliacs.
Where do the sympathetics to the kidney come from?
thoracic splanchnic nerves (lesser & least)
lumbar splanchnics (usu L1)
Where is the aorticorenal ganglion?
a small ganglia on the renal artery
Where do the sympathetics to the kidneys synapse?
probably the SMA
Where do the parasympathetics to the kidneys come from?
Where do the parasympathetic to the kidneys synapse?
in the renal sinus
What bus do the sensory fibers hop on to on their return?
They return via the vagus & the sympathetics
What bus do the sensory fibers from the ureter hop on to?
dorsal root ganglions via T12-L2 spinal nerves
Describe the blood supply to the suprarenal glands.
Superior Suprarenal: from the inferior phrenic artery
Middle Suprarenal: from the aorta directly
Inferior Suprarenal: from the renal artery
Describe the venous drainage of the suprarenal glands.
The right kidney drains directly into the IVC.
The left kidney can either drain directly into the IVC or into a renal vein.
What is the only autonomic pathway with just one neuron?
The preganglionic sympathetic fibers that innervate the secretory cells of the adrenal medulla. These cells sorta act like postganglionic neurons by secreting "NT" of Epi or NE into the bloodstream. This produces slow acting but longer lasting affects in various parts of the body.
T/F The sympathetic innervation to the adrenal cortex is only preganglionic.
FALSE. To the adrenal medulla...to the adrenal cortex it is normal.
So...describe the innervation of the adrenal cortex & adrenal medulla with respect to the celiac ganglion.
Okay...so a bunch of fibers go to the celiac ganglion & synapse & then go to the adrenal cortex.
But a bunch of fibers peel away from the celiac ganglion & go to the adrenal medulla as preganglionics.