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Flashcards in Postlethwaite (2011) Deck (65)
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1
Q

Who was Bennett Postlethwaite’s thesis supervisor?

A

Professor Frank L. Schmidt

2
Q

“Of the more traditional theories of intelligence, two perspectives are particularly dominant” - which are these?

A

The Cattell-Horn model of fluid and crystallized intelligence and the theory of General Cognitive Ability (GCA or g)

3
Q

How is Gf commonly assessed?

A

Gf is typically assessed with items of a nonverbal or graphical format using tests such as Raven‘s Progressive Matrices (see Figure 1 for an example item). However, verbal items (such as analogies) can also be used to assess Gf if the word pairs contain simple words that are familiar to the population of test takers

4
Q

What does Investment Theory propose?

A

Investment Theory proposes that individuals have a fixed amount of Gf which they can choose to “invest” in, or apply to, learning in specific “crystallized skills” or domains.

5
Q

How is Gc typically assessed?

A

Gc is typically measured with verbal items, particularly those assessing vocabulary.

6
Q

How is the correlation between Gf and Gc viewed?

A

While some scholars
view this as evidence for the higher level construct of g (Ackerman, Beier, & Boyle, 2005), traditional Gf-Gc theorists choose not to extract the general factor, a choice that reflects their view that g is merely a statistical artifact rather than a meaningful psychological construct.

7
Q

Cite three different definitions of “g”.

A
  • Ackerman and colleagues (2005, p. 32) describe g as “a generic representation for the efficiency of intellectual processes”.
  • Gottfredsen (1997, p. 79) argues that g is “essentially the ability to deal with cognitive complexity, in particular, with complex information”.
  • Schmidt and Hunter maintain that general cognitive ability is “essentially the ability to learn”.
8
Q

How does g theory explain why Gc is a good predictor of job performance?

A

A fundamental principle in psychology is that past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior (Oullette & Wood, 1998). Thus, when defining g as the ability to learn, g theory predicts that Gc indicators will be the best predictors of future learning and performance (which depends on learning).

9
Q

Why is it problematic to examine Gc and Gf using factor analysis?

A

Although factor analysis can be informative, it can also be problematic in that results can vary substantially depending on the specific combinations of tests examined. For example, Hunt (2000) points out that it is possible (and indeed quite simple) to manipulate the extraction of a general factor by selecting certain combinations of tests to analyze. That is, “interpretation of any summarizing statistic, including a general factor, depends upon what is being summarized”

10
Q

What was the correlation coefficient between WM and g found by Ackerman and colleagues (2005)?

A

0.479 (~0.5)

11
Q

How large is the “Flynn Effect”, roughly?

A

Flynn observed that IQ scores appear to have risen an average of 20 points per generation (i.e., every 30 years; Flynn, 1998).

12
Q

Is the Flynn Effect most prominent for Gf och Gc?

A

A closer look at the data reveals increases are visible primarily in Gf measures (such as the Raven‘s Progressive Matrices) and not in Gc measures (such as the SAT verbal scores).

13
Q

Which of Gf and Gc declines most with age?

A

The largest declines are seen with measures of fluid intelligence. In contrast, crystallized intelligence remains relatively stable until an extremely advanced age.

14
Q

How can tests of Gf and Gc respectively discriminate towards different groups?

A

While Gc tests may discriminate towards immigrants and non-native speakers, Gf tests may discriminate towards older applicants. The latter problem is exacerbated by the fact that the workforce generally is getting older.

15
Q

Name five of James McKeen Cattell’s ten sensory tests of intelligence

A
  • dynamometer pressure
  • sensation areas
  • reaction time for sound
  • weight differentiation
  • bisection of a 50cm line
16
Q

What was the purpose of Binet and Simon’s first intelligence tests?

A

To assess the degree to which French schoolchildren were developmentally- delayed for their ages.

17
Q

Which abilities have been added to the Cattell-Horn model of intelligence?

A
  • General visualization (Gv)
  • General speediness (Gs)
  • Short-term memory (Gsm) or short-term apprehension and retrieval (SAR)
  • Long-term memory (Glm) or tertiary storage and retrieval (TSR)
  • Auditory processing (Ga)
  • Correct decision speed (CDS)
  • Quantitative ability (Gq)
  • Reading/writing ability (Grw)
18
Q

How are Gf and Gc thought to influence each other?

A

One of the core ideas underlying Gf – Gc theory is that Gf and Gc are causally
related, whereby the acquisition of Gc is dependent, to a large degree, on Gf. A converse or reciprocal relationship is not part of the theory. That is, “level of gf is considered to be unaffected by previous Gc acquisitions”.

19
Q

Describe a simplified version of Cattell’s investment theory

A

Historical Gf&raquo_space; Present Gf
Historical Gf&raquo_space; Present Gc
Time/interests/etc&raquo_space; Common learning investment&raquo_space; Present Gc

20
Q

Hur definierar Raymond Cattell Gf?

A

“a single, general,

relation-perceiving ability connected with the total, associational, neuron development of the cortex”

21
Q

Hur definierar Raymond Cattell Gc?

A

“complex, acquired abilities, in the form of

high-level judgmental skills in particular perceptual and motor areas.”

22
Q

Hur definierar Benneth Postlethwaite Gc?

A

“the ability to establish and access patterns of acquired knowledge and information in the environment”

23
Q

Hur definierar Benneth Postlethwaite Gf?

A

“the ability to solve novel problems”

24
Q

Hur sammanfattar Postlethwaite forskningen på Investment Theory?

A

In sum, several well-intentioned attempts have been made to empirically test
components of Cattell‘s (1971/1987) Investment Theory, but results from each of these studies have been mixed at best.

25
Q

Hur fann Kvist and Gustafsson (2008) att korrelationen mellan g och Gf skiljde sig mellan grupper med olika “learning opportunities”?

A

Sambandet mellan Gf och g var .83 i den heterogena gruppen, medan det var “unity” (alltså nära 1.0) i den homogena gruppen.

26
Q

Why does assessing Gc become increasingly difficult with age?

A

Because most crystallized assessments have tended to focus on the common body of knowledge learned in school rather than domain-specific knowledge acquired throughout adulthood.

27
Q

How does Lohman (1993) propose fluid and crystallized problems can be viewed?

A

As lying along a continuum, with the horizontal line representing both the novelty of the problem (familiar vs. novel) as well as the degree of transfer required (near transfer vs. far transfer)

28
Q

Gagne’s (1970) idea of lateral transfer refers to what?

A

“How broadly the individual can generalize what he has learned to a new situation”

29
Q

How does Snow (1980) define Gf?

A

“Fluid ability represents new assemblies of performance processes needed for more extreme adaptations to novel situations.”

30
Q

How does Snow (1980) define Gc?

A

“Crystallized ability represents the long-term accumulation of knowledge and skills, organized into functional cognitive systems by prior learning, which become units for use in future learning. Thus [Gc] may represent prior assemblies of performance processes retrieved as a system and applied anew in instructional or other situations not unlike those experienced in the past.”

31
Q

What was the name of John Carroll’s landmark book from 1993?

A

Human Cognitive Abilities

32
Q

Who wrote “Human Cognitive Abilities”, and when?

A

John Carroll (1993)

33
Q

What is the basic method behind John Carroll’s “Human Cognitive Abilities” (1993)?

A

Carroll managed to gather and factor-analyze over 461 unique data sets. He subsequently synthesized these findings to construct a three-stratum model of cognitive abilities.

34
Q

How does Carroll’s model (1993) and Cattell-Horn Gf – Gc model differ from one another?

A

Carroll argues for the existence of a general factor (or g-factor) at stratum III, superordinate over the broad stratum II abilities.

35
Q

Describe John Carroll’s model of intelligence (1993)

A
The stratums:
Stratum III = general ability
Stratum II = Broad abilities
 • Gf
 • Gc
 • Gy (memory & learning)
 • Gv (broad visual perception)
 • Gu (broad auditory perception)
 • Gr (broad retreival ability)
 • Gs (braod cognitive speediness)
 • Gt (decision reaction time)
Stratum I = Narrow abilities
36
Q

Describe the GCA model of intelligence

A

g = Gf & Gc

37
Q

With which arguments do Horn and Blankson (2005) deny the existence of a general intelligence factor?

A

“(1) The structural evidence thus does not support a theory of g. (2) The developmental evidence is even less supportive. In general, (3) construct validation evidence is counter to a theory that human intelligence is organized in accordance with one common principle or influence.”

38
Q

How did Raymond Cattell (1963) explain the positive correlations among broad abilities (as opposed to the “g-explanation”)?

A

“Positive correlations among broad abilities should not be interpreted as “fluid and crystallized ability form a single third-order factor”, but rather that a single influence, which is fluid ability as it stood during the formative period of crystallized ability, is causative to the present levels of both.”

39
Q

Describe Deary et al.’s (2000) study of IQ stability over time

A

It examined the stability of IQ over an especially long interval.

  1. In 1932, all Scottish children born in 1921 took the Moray House Test, a validated measure of intelligence
  2. In 1998, Deary and colleagues administered the Moray House Test to 101 individuals who participated in the Scottish Mental Survey some 66 years earlier
  3. IQ measured with the Moray House Test at age 11 correlated .63 with IQ measured with the Moray House Test at age 77 (.73 when corrected for range restriction)
40
Q

What correlation did Deary et al. (2000) between IQ tests at ages 11 and 77?

A

IQ measured with the Moray House Test at age 11 correlated .63 with IQ measured with the Moray House Test at age 77 (.73 when corrected for range restriction)

41
Q

What is the typical aging pattern for Gf?

A

On average, Gf has been found to increase throughout young adulthood, peaking
between ages 26 and 35, after which time it begins a period of steady, continuing decline

42
Q

What correlation did Babcock (1994) find between age and Ravens Progressive Matrices-results?

A

Babcock (1994) administered the RAPM to 183 adults between the ages of 21 and 83. She found that age correlated -.46 with RAPM performance.

43
Q

What is age-related Gf decline typically attributed to?

A

Age-related declines in Gf have largely been attributed to decrements in working memory, processing speed, and rule application

44
Q

What is the typical aging pattern for Gc?

A

Gc has been estimated to increase until approximately age 70 (Schaie, 1996), after which it may decrease slightly. However, some studies (e.g., Harwood & Naylor, 1971) have found that Gc may continue to increase even into the 80s.

45
Q

What did Bors and Vigneau (2003) find regarding individual reliabilities of RAPM items?

A

Individual RAPM item reliabilities were quite low, suggesting that “the improvements in performance were not based on the acquisition or on the retention of item-specific information, but rather on the development or refinement of some process or activity more general in nature”

46
Q

How do Bors and Vigneau (2003) explain the slight improvement in RAPM-scores in repeated testing?

A

“The improvements in performance were not based on the acquisition or on the retention of item-specific information, but rather on the development or refinement of some process or activity more general in nature”

47
Q

What link did Basak, Boot, Voss, and Kramer (2008) find between video game practice and RAPM-scores? (and what makes the results uncertain?)

A

Participants participated in 23.5 hours of training in a real-time strategy video game, Rise of Nations. When compared to a control group of 19 individuals who did not receive training, trainees displayed score increases (from 44% of items correct pre-training to 59% of items correct post-training) on an abbreviated measure of the Raven‘s Advanced Progressive Matrices.

(small sample size and abbreviated test makes the results less reliable)

48
Q

What impact does training-related improvements in Gf have on real-world outcomes?

A

Research has not yet established whether any of the observed gains in Gf demonstrate appreciable relationships with real-world outcomes, such as increases in daily functioning, learning, or job performance

49
Q

What relation did te Nijenhuis, van Vianen and van der Flier (2007) find between training-related improvements on cognitive test scores and g?

A

A recent meta-analysis by te Nijenhuis, van Vianen, & van der Flier (2007) suggests score gains on cognitive tests are not related to g

50
Q

According to Ericsson & Charness (1994), what problem solving approach is more common among novices?

A

Novices tend to approach problems inductively. That is, they reason backward in their search for a solution. This is the type of reasoning characteristic of Gf

51
Q

According to Ericsson & Charness (1994), what problem solving approach is more common among experts?

A

Experts tend to employ deductive or forward reasoning. This type of reasoning relies on the complex, stored knowledge that is characteristic of Gc.

“Experts form an immediate representation of the problem that systematically cues their knowledge.”

52
Q

What relationship did Rabbitt (1993) find between age, Gf, and the ability to solve crossword puzzles?

A

Among novices, puzzle performance was negatively correlated with age (r = -.25) and strongly correlated with Gf (r = .72). However, among crossword experts, puzzle performance was positively correlated with age (r = .24) and uncorrelated to Gf. Gf appears to play little role in performance among experts.

53
Q

On what grounds do Ng and Feldman (2008) conclude that Gc is likely to be a much stronger predictor of manager performance?

A

Ng and Feldman (2008) found a small positive relationship between age and supervisor- rated task performance (ρ = .03). Given that Gf declines substantially with age, a negative relationship between age and job performance would be expected if Gf were the dominant ability. The age – task performance relationship observed by Ng and Feldman is more consistent with a dominant predictive role being played by Gc, since it is maintained throughout most of adulthood.

54
Q

What conclusions did Duckworth et al. (2011) reach regarding test motivation and IQ?

A

Test motivation poses a less serious threat to the internal validity of studies using higher-IQ samples, such as college undergraduates, as opposed to lower-IQ samples where participants have fewer external motivators for optimal test performance.

55
Q

Which three broad dimensions of job performance were outlined by Viswesvaran and Ones (2000) and Rotundo and Sackett (2002)?

A

(1) task performance
(2) organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
(3) counterproductive work behavior (CWB)

56
Q

Vilken prediktiv validitet har Gcrystallized-mått för akademisk prestation på två komplexitetsnivåer?

A

College - 0.65

High school - 0.53

57
Q

Vilken prediktiv validitet har Gfluid-mått för akademisk prestation på två komplexitetsnivåer?

A

College - 0.45

High school - 0.38

58
Q

Vilken prediktiv validitet har GMA-mått för akademisk prestation på två komplexitetsnivåer?

A

College - 0.73

High school - 0.65

59
Q

Begåvningstest som prediktor av akademisk prestation fungerar bäst på vilken komplexitetsnivå?

A

Högre komplexitet, alltså college snarare än high school.

60
Q

Är skillnaden i prediktionsförmåga mellan fluid- respektive crystallized-mått störst för akademisk prestation eller (professionell) arbetsprestation?

A

Skillnaden är störst för professionell arbetsprestation

61
Q

Vilken prediktiv validitet har Gfluid-mått för “job performance” på tre komplexitetsnivåer, och vad gör resultaten osäkra?

A

High complexity - 0.65
Medium complexity - 0.26
Low complexity - 0.00

Resultaten måste tolkas försiktigt eftersom man i jämförelsen mellan de tre respektive komplexitetsnivåerna har ett litet antal studier som jämförs med varandra.

62
Q

Vilken prediktiv validitet har Gcrystallized-mått för “job performance” på tre komplexitetsnivåer?

A

High complexity - 0.60
Medium complexity - 0.55
Low complexity - 0.45

63
Q

Vilken prediktiv validitet har GMA-mått för “job performance” på tre komplexitetsnivåer?

A

High complexity - 0.60
Medium complexity - 0.48
Low complexity - 0.38

64
Q

Vilken är den enda situationen där Cfluid-mått har högre prediktorvärde än Gc och GMA?

A

High complexity job performance

65
Q

What did Smither et al (1993) conclude regarding the comparative face validity of fluid and crystallized measures, respectively?

A

Smither and colleagues (Smither et al, 1993) have found that both recently hired managers and recruiting/employment managers tend to rate cognitive tests with concrete items such as vocabulary, written English, and mathematical word problems as more job-related than cognitive ability tests that consist of more abstract item types.