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Flashcards in Poultry and Eggs Deck (76)
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1

Worldwide poultry consumption is (increasing/decreasing). Why?

increasing
lower in fat (less saturated, skin is easily removed)
cheap to produce

2

How does Canadian poultry consumption compare with other proteins?

Most protein consumed is chicken
Eggs are also significant source

3

Why has the increase in poultry production and consumption worldwide decreased slightly in recent years?

Bird flu in China
restrictions on import, consumption

4

Most of Canada's poultry is produced in:

Ontario (followed by Quebec)

5

Define poultry; what are the most commonly consumed types?

meat from domesticated fowl (birds)

chicken > turkey > duck > goose/guinea fowl

6

What determines the "yield" of poultry?

relative % of meat (with skin and bone removed)

7

What are the classifications for turkey meat? (2)

Roasters (16-24wks)
Hen/tom turkey (old breeders) - >52wks

8

What affects the composition of poultry meat? (5)

breed
age
sex
growth environment
diet

9

Name 2 canadian breeds of chicken, and what they are known for.

Red shaver, Chantecler
more meat, able to withstand cold

10

Compare the compositions of chicken, duck, and quail/pheasant

chicken: 50% meat, 35% bone, 15% skin
duck: less bone and meat, but more skin (fatty)
quail/pheasant: much higher meat yield (>75%), with less bone and skin

11

What are the poultry classifications for chicken (6)? What is it based on?

weight and age

broilers: 6-8wks - 1kg
Fryers: 6-8wks - 1-1.4kg
roasters:>8months - 1.4-2.2kg
stewing hen: >10months - 2.2-3.2kg
capon (neutered male): 3.2-3.6kg
rooster: >10months - 3.2-3.6kg

12

Poultry meat may be described as ____ or ____. What are the differences?

white; dark

white is lighter, higher protein, lower fat
dark is redder, higher fat

13

The fat content of poultry can be decreased substantially by;

removing skin

14

What are the 3 classes of processed meats?

minimally processed - salted/cured
moderately altered - sectioned and restructured
extensively altered - highly processed, reduce to tiny particles and reformed

15

Compare the lipid profiles of duck and goose, vs chicken and turkey.
What implications does this have?

duck/goose have more lipids, high in MUFAs (mostly oleic)
chicken/turkey less lipids, higher in PUFAs (linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic)

omega 3 and 6 especially beneficial, but more prone to rancidity/spoilage

16

What is MDPM or MSPM, and how is it obtained? What is it used for?

mech. separated/deboned poultry meat
remaining meat taken from carcass after meat cuts are removed

use high pressure on carcass inside a sieve chamber -> meat scraps sieved through, while bones remain in chamber

use for formed processed meats (hot dogs, lunch meat)

17

Meat processing can involve ___, ___, or ___ processes, and serves to: (3)

thermal, mechanical, chemical

increase shelf life
alter texture/taste (variety)
convenience

18

Duck and goose meat have higher amounts of ___ and ___.

dark meat
lipids

19

what additive for processed meat will increase water holding capacity by affecting muscle proteins? Describe the mechanism

polyphosphates

polar, so binds water
also will promote dissociation of ACTOMYOSIN -> actin and myosin (separated, will have better WHC)

20

______ phosphates increase WHC, reduce ____, and help preserve ____, while _____ phosphates ___________.

alkaline; reduce oxidation; preserve color
acidic; reduce bacterial growth

21

The role of most additives for processed meat aim to: (2)

increase water holding capacity
increasing binding ability

22

What are the effects of salt on meat? (4)

reduces WHC, extracts salt-soluble proteins, reduce Aw, reduce microbe activity

23

True/False: salt is essential for the curing of meat.

True; however it is not the actual curing agent.

24

What is "curing?"

treatment of meat with nitrates/nitrite and salt to preserve and obtain certain taste/color/texture

25

Why would soy be added to meat products? (3)

increase WHC
binding
reduce cost

26

The actual curing agent in meat is:

NO
precursors are NO3 or NO2

27

What is the role of nitrites in processed meats? (4)

- stop bacteria growth (especially C. botulinum)
- develop flavor
- develop and stabilize color
- reduce oxidation

28

Can nitrosylmyoglobin be returned to normal Mb?

Yes, if not heated then binding is reversible

29

Describe the mechanism for color development in cured meat, and the necessary reagents.

1. Nitrite and reducing agent (Na erythryorbate) is added
2. Nitrite will dissolve in water, release nitrous acid
3. Will be reduced to NO
4. NO bind to heme in Mb -> nitrosylmyoglobin (MbNO) - pinkish (not yet stable)
5. heat -> globin is denatured -> nitrosylhemochromogen (stable pink)


30

The egg yolk contains the ______, which the site of potential fertilization.

germinal disc