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Flashcards in PPT 1: Auditory Deck (44)
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Which part of the ear (inner, middle, external)?
A. Air waves generate vibrations in tympanic membrane
B. Contains eustacian (auditory) tube
C. Ossicle vibrations transmit sound; air filled
D. Vibration conducted through fluid in cochlea

A. External
B. Inner
C. Middle
D. Inner


Name that Gland: Sebacious or Ceruminous?
A. Found in outer 1/3 of ear canal; with hair follicles
B. Modified apocrine glands
C. Their secretions are found in ear wax
D. Glands that secrete substance that protects ear canal from damage/infection

A. Both
B. Ceruminous
C. Both (with desquamated meatal cells)
D. Ceruminous. Secrete Cerumin


Name the nerve: CN V3, VII, IX, X, GA, LO, AT
A. Chorda Tympani n. branches backwards off of
B. Chorda Tympani joins ___ as it approaches oral cavity
C. Innervates anterior auricle, superior to ear canal
D. Itching from swimmers ear in ear canal could be from

A. CN VII (facial)
B. CN V3 (trigem)
C. Auriculotemporal (AT), off of V3
D. CN V3 (trigem) and/or CN X (vagus) -- both innervate


Stapedius m. or Tensor Tympani m.?
A. Acts on malleus to dampen xtreme low freq. vibrations
B. Dampens extreme vibrations of stapes
B. Innervated by CN VII
C. Innervated by V3

A. Tensor Tympani m.
B. Stapedius m.
C. Stapedius m.
D. Tensor Tympani m.


T or F: Chorda tympani
A. Branches from CN IX and joins CN V2
B. Contains sensory and autonomic neuronal axons
C. Sensory neurons sense taste from anterior 2/3 tongue
D. Parasympathetics to sublingual (postganglionic) and submandibular salivary glands (preganglionic)

A. False. Branches from CN VII and joins V3
B. True
C. True
D. True except sublingual = preganglionic, submandibular = postganglionic


What is the name of the central depression in tympanic membrane? What is responsible for this depression?

Tension of the malleolus


What causes Otitis Media? What are two effects of the negative pressure created?

Infection/inflammation of the middle ear.
Fluid build up blocks middle ear and air is absorbed. Negative pressure (1) pulls tympanic membrane inward or (2) pulls viral/bacterial laden fluid upward from the pharynx into the tympanic cavity


What are two types of complications of Otitis Media?

(1) Infection can rupture ear drum.
(2) Infection can spread through tegmen tympani (between middle ear and cranial cavity) and cause meningitis or brain abscesses


Skin from ear canal that fills with cysts and migrates through a perforation in the tympanic membrane. Grows out of control & damages middle ear and mastoid.



Cochlea: Scala Media, Tympani, or Vestibuli?
A. Cochlear duct
B. Houses the Organ of Corti
C. Bordered by vestibular & basilar membranes
D. Contains perilymph, high in Na++

A. Media
B. Media
C. Media
D. Vestibuli and Tympani


What is the spatial relationship between the scala tympani and the scala vestibule? What kind of fluid do they contain? What is the helicotrema?

They are continuous ("parking garage") meet at the apex (helicotrema) of cochlea. Vestibuli is superior to scala media, and Tympani is inferior to scala media. Contain perilymph.


Cochlea: Scala Media, Tympani, or Vestibuli?
A. Fluid pressure wave generated at oval window moves through this space first
B. Has endolymph secreted by stria vascularis
C. Contains fluid high in K+
D. Fluid wave pushes out on round window

A. Vestibuli
B. Media
C. Media
D. Tympani


Put these in order:
External auditory canal
Tympanic membrane

External auditory canal --> tympanic membrane --> Malleus --> Incus --> Stapes


Name parts of the exterior ear:
A. Outer rim
B. Inner rim
C. Ear lobe
D. Anterior flap, medial ear

A. Helix
B. Antihelix
C. Auricular lobule
D. Tragus


Name parts of the exterior ear:
A. Small "flap" superior to ear lobe
B. Bowl shaped entrance/funnel into ear canal
C. Type of cartilage
D. Ear canal

A. Antitragus
B. Concha
C. Elastic
D. External acoustic meatus


Malleus, Stapes, or Incus?
A. Attached to/vibrated by tympanic membrane
B. Transmits vibrations from one ossicle to the next
C. Transmits vibrations through oval window to cochlea
D. Tensor tympani m. acts on

A. Malleus
B. Incus
C. Stapes
D. Malleus


T or F: Equalize pressure in the ear?
A. Levator palati
B. Tensor palati
C. Tensor Tympani
D. Salpingopharyngeus

A. True
B. True
C. False
D. True


Describe the Organ of Corti in terms of location and relationship to the tectorial membrane.

In scala media (cochlear duct), on top of basilar membrane, below tectorial membrane.
Stereocilia of hair cells touch tectorial membrane.


Organ of Corti Hair Cells: Inner or Outer?
A. Inferior to middle of tectorial membrane
B. Most likey to be damaged by loud noise
C. Inferior to outer tectorial membrane
D. Non-neural receptor cells

A. Inner
B. Outer
C. Outer
D. Both


Organ of Corti Hair Cells: Inner or Outer?
A. Have non-motile stereocilia
B. Primarily mechanical amplifiers
C. Primary sensory cells; 95% of axons in CN VIII innervate these
D. 5% of axons in CN VIII innervate these

A. Both
B. Outer
C. Inner
D. Outer


Malleus, Incus, or Stapes?
A. Transforms mech. vibration into fluid pressure wave
B. Directly receives mechanical vibration from compression/rarefaction of air
C. Transmits vibrations within air filled tympanic cavity
D. Chorda Tympani n. passes between ear drum & ____

A. Stapes
B. Malleus
C. Malleus, Incus, and Stapes
D. Malleus


REDO Fill in the blank: Pathway of sound transmission
A. medulla, ________, inf. colliculi
B. inf colliculi ___________
C. cochlea _________
D. __________ primary aud. cortex

A. lateral lemniscus
B. medial geniculate
C. medulla
D. medial geniculate
Full path is cochlea, medulla, lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculi, medial geniculate, primary auditory cortex (temporal lobe)


Describe the anatomy and impact of superior olivary feedback onto the organ of Corti.

Efferents from sup. olive regulate outer and inner hair cell sensitivity and electromotility responses to sound.
Inhibit outer cell responses to basilar membrane waves, thus indirectly inhibiting inner cell responses, especially to low level sounds.


Inf. Coll., Prim Aud Cortex, or Aud Assoc. Cortex?
A. Found in superior temporal lobe
B. Includes ventral and dorsal streams
C. Auditory input from cochlear nuclei and superior olive
D. Tonotopic organization of frequencies synthesized into sound forms

A. Primary auditory cortex
B. Auditory association cortex
C. Inferior colliculus
D. Primary auditory cortex


Tinnitis: Subjective or Somatic?
A. Synergistic effects of 2+ causes
B. Abnormal activity in brain stem (DCN)
C. Sound w/o external stimulation (phantom)
D. Trigeminal & dorsal root ganglia send excitatory projections to cochlear nucleus

A. Somatic
B. Subjective
C. Subjective
D. Somatic


How does the superior olive localize sound? What localizes high frequency/low frequency sounds?

Disparity in time and intensity between right and left sounds localizes object in space.
Time differences localizes low frequencies
Intensity differences localize high frequencies


Name the nerve: CN V3, VII, IX, X, GA, LO, AT
A. If you get your ear lobe pierced, this nerve responds
B. Middle ear infection pain might be from this nerve
C. Center of auricle innervated by
D. Superior part of ear innvervated by

A. GA (greater auricular) innervates ear lobe
B. CN IX (glossopharyngeal) innervates middle ear (and/or possibly chorda tympani n.)
C. CN VII (facial)
D. Lesser occipital (LO)


Transmission of Sound - Put in Order and Fix Errors
1. Tectorial membrane shear forces bend perilymph
2. Receptor cells hyperpolarize; release neurotrans.
3. Sound --> vertical oscillations in vestibular membrane
4. Sensory neurons respond and form CN VIII

3. Sound waves --> vert. oscillations in BASILAR membrane.
1. Tectorial membrane shear forces bend HAIR CELL STEREOCILIA
2. Receptor cells DEPOLARIZE and release neurotrans.
4. Sensory neurons respond and form CN VIII


T or F?
The basilar membrane is able to respond to all frequencies equally along its length.

Different parts of basilar membrane respond to different frequencies of sound. A specific frequency of sound produces an envelope of pressure waves in the basilar membrane with a maximum amplitude at a unique point along the membrane (resonance frequency).


Sound waves travel along what portion of the basilar membrane?

Full length of basilar membrane


Frequency (pitch) of incoming sound is initially coded by difference in basilar membrane ______ and _______.

Stiffness and width from base to apex.


T or F?
Overstimulation can produce a vibration that returns through the oval window & ossicles and projects out through tympanic membrane as sound called oto-accoustic emmissions.



What do outer hair cells contribute to the transmission of sound information to the cochlear n.?

They amplify oscillations of the basilar membrane


How do hair cells help us to distinguish between frequencies that are close together?

Outer hair cells sharpen the peak of the sound wave. This helps to stimulate the frequency being amplified, instead of several frequencies simultaneously.


Cochlear nuclei of medulla: Dorsal or Ventral?
A. Speech comprehension; bilateral
B. Localization of sound; Sensory-motor integration of vocal information
C. Projects to Broca's area; left dominant
D. Wernicke's area (auditory, visual, & somatosensory)

A. Ventral
B. Dorsal
C. Dorsal
D. Ventral


REDO T or F? Music
A. Activity in auditory cortex can modulate activity in limbic regions involved in emotion
B. Temporal cortex is involved bilaterally in higher levels of auditory activity
C. Singing --> activation of R temp lobe and motor areas
D. Speech, rhythm and melody use L side

A. True. (amygdala, cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus, insula)
B. False. Temporal, parietal, and motor cortices
C. True
D. False. Both sides but asymmetrically


Put these in order:
Oval window
Round window
Scala vestibuli
Scala tympani

Stapes --> Oval window --> scala vestibuli --> scala tympani --> Round window


CHECK Cochlear nuclei of medulla: Dorsal or Ventral?
A. Localization time - low freq, intensity - high freq.
B. Quality of sound; tiny frequency differences
C. Red nucleus
D. Superior olive (black)

A. Ventral
B. Dorsal
C. Dorsal
D. Ventral


How do muscles help to equilibrate the pressure in the middle ear?

Levator and tensor palati and Salpingopharyngeus
Pull down during swallowing
Open tubal cartilage
Equilibrate pressure between pharynx and middle ear


How do outer hair cells perform their function? What changes take place?

1. Cilia bend --> electromotile response--> hair cells contract and elongate
2. Push up on tectorial membrane --> tect membrane pushes back on them
3. Recoil is timed to give positive feedback and amplify oscillation of basilar membrane


Tinnitus: Somatic or Subjective?
A. Changes in primary auditory cortex
B. Cochlear nuclear activity projects to somatic afferent systems to bias sensation
C. Causes: TMJ, noise damage, whiplash, CN VII tumors, MS, meningitis, aspirin

A. Subjective
B. Somatic
C. Subjective


Name the part of the brain:
A. Projects sound to cortex tonotopically
B. Somatosensory input - orientation of head/body for sound localization
C. Another name for superior olive

A. Medial geniculate body of thalamus
B. Inferior Colliculus
C. Ventral cochlear nucleus


How is feedback from the superior olive different in quiet environments versus noisy environments?

Quiet = Efferents inhibit outer cell responses to low level sound detection
Noisy = Efferents improve signal detection and discrimination by suppressing low level background noise responses


What stimulates efferent control of Organ of Corti cells by superior olive?

Sensory input from cochlear nuclei
Reticular formation
Auditory cortex