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Flashcards in Practice Deck (31):
0

Which of these ions exists in the highest concentration in the extracellular environment?
A. Potassium
B. Calcium
C. Sodium
D. None of the above

C

1

In a patient with a compromised blood pressure regulation system, systolic blood pressure drops from 120 to 80. in the same patient with a working regulatory system, blood pressure drops from 120 to 110. what is the gain of this regulatory pathway

-3

2

What kind of regulatory pathway increases the force of uterine contraction in response to stretching of the cervix during childbirth?

Positive feedback loop

3

Whihc organelle is involved in intracellular trafficking

ER and Golgi

4

Glycolysis takes place in the _____, and the Kreb's cycle in the _____.

Cytosol, mitochondrion

5

What is the movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

Diffusion

6

The ____ energy is the average of the ___energy for all molecules that comprise of a sample matter

Thermal/kinetic

7

The Na/K pump is an example of which type of transport?

Primary active antitransport

8

Na/Glucose transporter is an example of which type of transport?

Secondary active cotransport

9

Na/H pump is an example of which type of transport

Secondary active antitransport

10

Where could you find a selectivity filter composed of carbonyl oxygens?

Potassium channels

11

Voltage-gated potassium channels differ from voltage-gated sodium channels in what way?

Potassium channels have one gate

12

Which type of axon will propagate an action potential the fastest?

Large diameter, myelinated

13

An action potential propagating toward the distal end of the axon is propagating in the ____ direction

Orthodromic

14

Calculate the elctromotive force of chloride ion across a membrane when [Cl]i = 2mEq and [Cl]o=200

-123mV

15

Sarcomere is composed of _______.

myofilaments

16

Which of the following is composed entirely of myosin?

H band

17

During contraction, when is the tension in a sarcomere greatest?

Actin filaments on opposite sides of the sarcomere fully overlap myosin heads without touch each other

18

______contraction occurs when there is an increase in muscle tension but not length

Isometric

19

What class of lever is demonstrated by raising the body on the ball of the foot

Second - class

20

Ach is synthesized where?

Cytosol of the axon terminal

21

Acetylcholinesterase is inhibited by ______?

Physostigmine

22

According to what was discussed in class, what is an effective treatment of myasthenia gravis?

Neostigmine

23

Soleus is primarily composed of ______
Gastrocnemius is mostly composed of ______

Dark, light

24

What is the osmolarity of a 4mM solution of CaCl2

12 mOsm/L

25

What characteristic does cardiac muscle have that skeletal muscles do not?

Branch, diads

26

True/false Slow cardiac action potentials depolarize without any external signal

True

27

What is the ejection fraction of someone who has EDV=125mL and an ESV = 50 mL?

60%

28

What are the names of the AV valves in the order in which blood passes through them?

Tricuspid, mitral

29

What are the purpose of the papillary muscles and chordae tendineae?

To prevent backflow from ventricle

30

True/False
The greater the heart muscle is stretched during filling, the weaker the force of contraction during systole

False