practice quiz questions set 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in practice quiz questions set 1 Deck (82):
1

The brain imaging technique that makes use of a narrow X-ray beam is called what?

CT

2

The type of nerve cell that synapses upon muscles is called a(n)

motor neuron (or motoneuron)

3

A neuron that innervates (i.e., makes synaptic contact with) a large number of other neurons

represents divergent neural signaling

4

What type of glial cell myelinates peripheral axons?

Schwann cells

5

What type of glial cell myelinates central axons?

Oligodendrocytes

6

What are the main established role for glial cells?

- Maintaining the ionic milieu surrounding nerve cells

-Hastening the propagation of neural impulses

-Assisting synaptic transmission via neurotransmitter uptake

-Providing scaffolds that assist neural development

7

A topographic map best accomplishes what type of representation?

the visual world

8

What technique first revealed the tremendous diversity of neuronal cell types is called what

The Golgi stain

9

Antibody staining is used to what?

visualize the distribution of specific proteins in the nervous system

10

The set of neurons and small ganglia associated with the digestion tract is called what?

The enteric nervous system

11

True or false:
Mitochondria are concentrated at presynaptic terminals

True

12

True or false:
The endoplasmic reticulum is concentrated in axons

False

13

True or false:
Exocytosis and endocytosis are important for synaptic communication?

True

14

True or false:
Glial cells rapidly transmit long-range electrical signals.

False

15

The structural brain imaging technique that relies on atoms behaving as small magnets is called what?

MRI

16

True or false:
The brainstem is part of the brain?

True

17

True or false:
The spinal cord is part of the brain?

False

18

What is a feature that distinguishes the four model organisms from other animals that have been intensively studied by neuroscientist?

Ease of genetic analysis and manipulation

19

Cognitive neuroscience is concerned with what?

-mathematical ability
-emotions
-language
-abstract thought

20

True or false:
A center-surround receptive field can be mapped by electrophysiological recording techniques

True

21

True or false:
A center-surround receptive field is characterized by a circular center and a donut-shaped surround.

True

22

True or false:
A center-surround receptive field can involve an excitatory response (e.g, to touch)

True

23

True or false:
A center-surround receptive field can involve an inhibitory response (e.g., to touch)

True

24

True or false:
A center-surround receptive field is found only in primary sensory cortex

False

25

What is an advantage that intracellular recordings have over extracellular recordings?

Intracellular recordings can record synaptic and receptor potentials while extracellular recordings cannot.

26

What scientist shared the Nobel Prize with Camillo Golgi for his anatomical studies of the CNS was

Santiago Ramon y Cajal

27

True or False:
Every gene in the human genome is expressed in the CNS

False

28

True or False:
Most of the genes in the human genome are expressed in the CNS

True

29

True or False:
There are tens of thousands of neuron-specific genes (i.e., genes that are not expressed outside the CNS).

False

30

True or false:
Humans have three to four times more genes than mice have

False

31

True or false:
Humans have 100 times more genes than invertebrates animals such as Drosophila.

False

32

What technique first produced unequivocal support for the neuron doctrine of the nervous system (as opposed to the reticular theory)?

Electron microscopy of nervous tissue

33

True or false:
The marine snail aplysia is a "model organism"

False

34

True or false:
The zebrafish is a "model organism"

True

35

True or false:
The fruit fly is a "model organism"

True

36

True or false:
the mouse is a "model organism"

True

37

True or false:
The nematode C. elegans is a "model organism"

True

38

The resting membrane potential is not exactly equal to the Nernst potential for potassium because of what?

The membrane has some resting permeability to species other than potassium.

39

Typically, neurons firing action potentials encode a signal's intensity by:

changing frequency of their action potentials

40

Hodgkin and Katz proposed that sodium was the predominant ion associated with the firing of an action potential because

the membrane potential approached the Na+ Nernst potential during the rising phase

41

Studies of the ionic basis of the action potential in squid giant axon found that

decreasing sodium outside the cell decreases the size of the action potential

42

The equation used to calculate membrane potential when there are multiple permeant ions is called what?

Goldman equation

43

True or false:
Potassium is higher inside nerve cells than outside nerve cells

True

44

True or false:
Sodium is higher outside nerve cells than inside nerve cells

True

45

True or false:
Chloride is higher outside nerve cells than inside nerve cells

True

46

True or false:
Calcium is higher outside nerve cells than inside nerve cells

True

47

True or false:
The total concentration of all ionic species is approximately the same for all nerve cells in all animals

False

48

True or false:
The permeability of some ions can be very low

True

49

True or false: In resting nerve cells, the membrane is quite permeable to sodium?

False

50

True or false:
The permeability of some ions can change over time

True

51

True or false:
In resting nerve cells, the membrane is quite permeable to potassium

True

52

True or false:
Resting membrane is a usual kind of potential exhibited by nerve cells

True

53

True or false:
Action is a usual kind of potential exhibited by nerve cells?

True

54

True or false:
Reaction is a usual kind of potential exhibited by nerve cells?

False

55

True or false:
Receptor is a usual kind of potential exhibited by nerve cells?

True

56

True or false:
Synaptic is a usual kind of potential exhibited by nerve cells?

True

57

A measured membrane potential of +58 mV would be consistent with ___ inside the cell and ___ outside the cell.

10 mM Na+,
100 mM Na+

58

The synaptic potential makes what possible?

communication between nerve-cells possible.

59

True or false:
Consumption of metabolic energy is necessary for neurons to communicate electrically

True

60

True or false:
Use of active transporters to create ionic gradients is necessary for neurons to communicate electrically?

True

61

True or false:
Separation of large amounts of electrical charge, with excess positive charges stored inside the cell is necessary for neurons to communicate electrically.

False

62

True or false:
Selective permeability of the cell membrane via different kinds of ion channels is necessary for neurons to communicate electrically.

True

63

True or false:
Changes in membrane potential caused by the movement of ions across the cell membrane is necessary for neurons to communicate electrically.

True

64

True or false:
In comparison to copper wires, nerve cells are relatively poor conductors of electricity

True

65

The transmembrane potential is generated by what?

diffusion of ions down a concentration gradient

66

What factors are important in determining the membrane potential when there are multiple permeant ions?

-The concentration gradient of the individual ionic species
-The permeability of the membrane to the individual ionic species.

67

The different electrical signals occurring in nerve cells are caused by what?

fluxes of ions across the cell membrane

68

True or false:
The large size of the axon makes it easy to penetrate with recording electrodes is a reason for the usefulness of squid giant axon in neuronal studies.

True

69

True or false: The axoplasm can be extruded, thus allowing studies of its composition is a reason for the usefulness of squid giant axon in neuronal studies

True

70

True or false:
Large synapses between giant nerve cells make them easy to study is a useful in neural studies

True

71

True or false:
Giant ion channels allow for the insertion of recording electrodes into the channels making squid giant axons useful in neuronal studies

False

72

True or false:
Properties of the squid's axons and synapses can be related to its behavior is a useful reason to use squid giant axons in neuronal studies

True

73

True or false:
Electrochemical equilibrium involves the movement of a relatively small number of ions.

True

74

True or False:
Ionic gradients are necessary for the generation of the membrane potential

True

75

True or False:
The size of the potential is proportional to the size of the ion gradient

True

76

True or False:
The direction of the ion gradient determines the polarity of the membrane potential

True

77

True or false:
For a given ion concentration gradient, the resulting potential is independent of the number of charges on the ions

False

78

True or false:
Heat is a cause of sensory receptor potentials?

True

79

True or False:
Pressure is a cause of sensory receptor potentials

True

80

True or False:
Sound is a cause of sensory receptor potentials

True

81

True or False:
Chemicals is a cause of sensory receptor potentials?

True

82

True or false:
Brain waves is a cause of sensory receptor potentials?

False