Q. When did the first humans enter North America across the Bering Strait land bridge?
A: the last Ice Age, approximately 15,000 to 30,000 years ago
Q. What was the path of migration for the first humans in the Americas?
A: migrated southward from Alaska and populated North and South America.
Q. What are some defining characteristics of the Native Americans of California?
A: spoke a great diversity of dialects.
A: represented the largest concentration of Indians in North America (estimated at 150,000 to 300,000).
A: were primarily hunter/gatherer societies.
A: were not generally warlike, and weapons were not sophisticated (in comparison to those of the Plains Indians)
Q. What shared cultural aspects defined the Native Americans of California?
A: traced lineage on the paternal side.
A: religions were similar in myths, creation stories, shamanism, and the influence of nature.
A: roles were sex differentiated: The men hunted and fished, and the women gathered food and materials and killed small game
A: the oral story tradition was used by all California Indians
Q. Were Indians tribes tightly or loosely connected?
A: Geographic factors isolated many tribes
A: Desert and mountain barriers restricted contact.
Q. What material belongings did Indian tribes share in common?
A: Houses (earth, bark, plank, thatch) and ceremonial houses (sweat, dance, menstrual).
A: Musical instruments: drum, rattle, flute, rasp, and bow.
A: Money: clam disks and olivella shells