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Flashcards in Prelims :(( Deck (111):
1

Continuous sheet of closely adherent cells covering a naturally occurring surface in body.

Epithelium

2

Where lowermost cell rest. A very fine meshwork of filaments in amorphous matrix

Basal lamina

3

Single layer of cells

Simple epithelium

4

Multiple layers of cell

Stratified epithelium

5

term added if there is a slender motile processes on their free surface

Ciliated

6

lines the thoracic, abdominal and pericardial cavities of the body

Simple epithelium

7

constitutes the epidermis of the skin, and is found in the lining of the oral cavity, the esophagus and the vagina

Stratified epithelium

8

found in the male urethra and the duct of the parotid gland

Pseudostratified epithelium

9

- lines the urinary bladder
- Found throughout the urinary tract, from the calyces of the kidneys to the urethra

Transitional epithelium

10

closely adherent cells that have polygonal outline in surface view. And in section, are fusiform. Lines the thoracic, abdominal and pericardial cavities of the body

Simple squamous epithelium

11

simple squamous epithelium lining a body cavity

Mesothelium

12

lining blood vessels

Endothelium

13

polygonal in surface view, and in section, has a rectangular or square outline. Lines the ducts of many glands and some of the tubules of kidney

Simple cuboidal epithelium

14

tall narrow, rectangular profile, and their nuclei are all aligned at the same level. Found lining stomach

Simple columnar epithelium

15

multiple layers, & the cell shape changes from the basal to the uppermost layer of the epithelium. Found in epidermis of the skin, lining of the oral cavity, esophagus, and vagina

Stratified squamous epithelium

16

found on the palms of the hand and soles of the feet

Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

17

basal cells are cuboidal, or low columnar, & cells of the upper row are tall columnar. The nuclei are aligned in 2 distinct rows. This type of epithelium is uncommon & found only in the conjunctiva of the eye, the cavernous urethra, & in the large excretory ducts of some glands

Stratified columnar epithelium

18

all cells rest on the basal lamina, but some are columnar in form and extend upwards to the free surface, while others located between them have tapering upper end, which extends only part way to the surface. The nuclei of these 2 kinds of cells are aligned at different levels, creating a false impression of stratification. They are found in the male urethra and duct of parotid gland

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

19

occurs in a portion of the trachea, primary bronchi, auditory tube , & lining a portion of the tympanic cavity of the inner ear

Ciliates pseudostratified epithelium

20

lines the urinary bladder. A special epithelium has evolved to adapt to the changes in volume of this organ during its filling and emptying

Transitional epithelium

21

family of glycoproteins in the cell membrane that maintains the cohesion and arrangement of cells in an epithelium

Cell adhesion molecules

22

are responsible for the mutual recognition & cohesion of similar cells

Cadherins

23

- belt-like membrane specialization that encircles the columnar cells just below the surface of the epithelium
- enable cells to exercise selectivity; serve as a barrier between the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane; prevent movement of integral proteins from one to the other

Zona occludens (tight junction)

24

involves the active uptake of substances at the free surface by pinocytosis, followed by transport of the vesicles across the cell and release of their content at the cell base

Trancellular pathway

25

molecules passively diffuse through the intercellular spaces of epithelium

Paracellular pathway

26

- encircles the apical portion of the cells below the zonula occludens
- Site of cell-cell adherence
- Have a role in stabilizing the epithelium by connecting the terminal webs of adjoining cells

Zona adherens

27

- Small, round, junctional specializations on the sides of adjoining epithelial cells
- Site of cell-cell attachments
- Contribute to the stability of the epithelium as a whole by linking the cytoskeletons of adjoining cells

Desmosomes (macula adherens)

28

- Found in stratified squamous epithelium.
- Enable the epithelium to withstand the blows and shearing stresses to which the skin is exposed, without becoming separated from the basal lamina

Hemidesmosomes

29

- junctional complex that is primarily concerned with cell to cell communication
- They are abundant in smooth and striated muscle and ensures their simultaneous contraction

Gap junction (nexus)

30

- project into the intercellular space, of opposing membrane, where they are linked end to end
- Ions, amino acids, cyclic AMP & other molecules less than 2nm in diameter would be able to pass freely through this channel

Connexons

31

transparent layer adjacent to epithelium. It is composed of large proteoglycan,laminin, & atypical collagen (type IV)

Lamina lucida

32

meshwork of fine filaments of another uncommon type of collagen (type VII)

Lamina densa

33

Made up of closely spaced, slender cell pro

Microvilli

34

exhibit fine vertical striations, that are refractile at apical border of columnar epithelia. Occurs on epithelia specialized for absorption.

Brush border

35

very fine branching filaments extending from their tips may form a furry coat over the border

Glycocalyx

36

- motile cell processes 7-10 micrometer in length and 0.3micrometer in diameter, which are present in great numbers on the free surface of certain epithelia
- They are arranged in rows, and all beat in the same direction

Cilia

37

Epithelial cells have a limited lifespan, and some are continually lost by exfoliation, or by programmed cell death, and are replaced by mitotic division of other cells

Epithelial renewal

38

composed of cells specialized for uptake of ions and small molecules from the lumen, and their movement across the epithelium to the extracellular fluid beneath the basal lamina

Absoprtive epithelia

39

are specialized for the synthesis of a specific product and its release onto an external or internal surface

Secretory epithelia

40

Glands that deliver their secretion onto the surface of an external or internal surface of the body

Exocrine glands

41

single unbranched duct

Simple glands

42

highly branched duct

Compound glands

43

Maintains the form of organs throughout the body

Connective tissue

44

Consists of protein fibers (ex. Collagen & elastic) and ground substance

Extracellular matrix

45

Colorless, translucent substance with the consistency of a highly hydrated gel

Ground substance

46

Binds cells to the fibers of the connective tissue

Adhesion glycoprotein

47

binding site for cells, collagen fibers, and proteoglycans

Fibronectin

48

able to bind directly to extracellular collagen fibers and actin in the cytoskeleton

Integrins

49

Binding sites for cell membranes, collages fibers and heparin sulfate

Laminin

50

provide strength and resistance to stretching & deformation

Extracellular folds

51

- Most abundant fibrous component of the connective tissue
- Made of polypeptide chains that differ slightly in amino acid sequence resulting to diff types
- Do not branch
- Common amino acid are hydroxyproline & hydroxylysine

Collagen

52

- “argyrophilic fibers” due to black staining properties w/ silver salts
- Abundant in hematopoetic and lymphoid tissue and follow organs such as bladder, intestine & uterus

Reticular fiber

53

- Selectively stains with resorcin-fuschin
- Composed of a rubber like glycoprotein called “elastin” in the core of a bundle of microfibrils

Elastic fibers

54

Stable population of immobile cells

Fixed cells

55

produce and maintain all connective tissue fibers (collagen, elastin, reticular) and the extracellular ground substance including the proteoglycans

Fibroblast

56

store lipids after meals and later release them into blood to serve as energy source during fussing

Adipose cells

57

Ever changing population of motile cells that emigrate form the blood & wander through the connective tissue on various missions.

Free cells

58

Motile phagotic cells

Macrophages

59

often seen in sites of infection; the pus that accumulates usually consists of dead or dying neutrophils

Neutrophils

60

greatly increased in allergic reaction and parasitic infection

Eosinophils

61

involved in protective immune- surveillance

Lymphocytes

62

differentiated lymphocytes hat have encountered antigen & produced specific antibodies against it

Plasma cells

63

- Part of immune system
- Detects foreign proteins in the tissue and release of cytokinesis that recruit other types of immune cells

Mast cells

64

Loose network of irregular arranged fibers in an abundant ground substance

Loose CT

65

Network or reticulum of argyrophilic fibers is the dominant fibrous component

Reticular CT

66

Contains large amount of ground substance especially hyaluronic acid

Mucous CT

67

Thicker and more densely packed collagen fibers with fewer cell types and the ground substance

Dense CT

68

Specialized type of connective tissue in which cells called chondrocytes are distributed in a firm gel like ground substance

Cartilage

69

Striated; multi nucleated; not branched; nucleus are in peripheral

Skeletal muscle

70

Repeating series of dark bands and light bands that are nearly perfectly aligned w/ one another

Striations

71

covers whole myosin w/ globular heads, causes striations

A band

72

contracts/ move w/ actin

I band

73

• Rod like tail consistent of 2 interwoven helical polypeptide chains
• 2 globular heads which contain ATPase enzymes – split ATP to generate energy during contraction

Thick filaments or myosin

74

contains the active sites to which myosin heads attach during contraction

G-actin

75

rod shaped protein that spirals about the actin core stiffen actin, binding sites on actin so that myosin heads cannot connect with actin.

Tropomyosin

76

binds tropomyosin and help position it on actin binds calcium ions.

Troponin

77

Composed of interconnecting that surrounds each myofibril

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

78

Elongated tubes located at each A band–I Band junction formed by the sarcolemma penetrating into the cell interior

T Tubules

79

Terminal cisterna + T tubule + Terminal cisternae

Triad

80

whole length of myosin

A band

81

passes through middle

M line

82

separates sarcomeres to another

Z line

83

- Space that separates the axon terminal & the muscle fiber

Synaptic cleft

84

Neurotransmitter released from presynaptic vesicles

Acetylcholine (Ach)

85

Enzyme located in the synapse cleft which breaks down the Ach

Acetylcholine sternase

86

Trough-like part of the muscle fibers sarcolemma

Motor end plate

87

• Uni, centrally placed nucleus
• Presence of transverse intercalated disk at interval along the length of the myofibrils

Cardiac muscle

88

separate cellular unit of cardiac muscle

Cardiac myocytes

89

Joined end to end at junctional complexes

Intercalated disc

90

covers outer surface of the bone

Periosteum

91

lines the inner layer of the bone

Endosteum

92

dense bone surrounding voluminous central medullary cavity cavity/ narrow cavity

Compact bone

93

this is what happens to a composed compact bone as it approached the end of diaphysis.

Cancellous bone

94

hin hyaline cartilage that covers the end of lone bones when it forms a joint with another bone

Articular cartilage

95

thin zone of hyaline cartilage, separates the diaphysis from a short segment of long bones of growing children at either end called EPIHYSIS

Epiphyseal plate

96

fusiform cell found in the periosteum and endosteum that are inactive precursor of osteoblasts, the bone forming cells of the growing bone.

Osteoprogenitor cells

97

cuboidal or low columnar cells aligned on bone surfaces.

Osteoblasts

98

residing in lacunae within the calcified matrix they are the principal cells of adult bone, as number of slender tapering cells processes radiates from the cell body which occupy canaliculi coming from different lacuna

Osteocytes

99

large cells that contain 4 to 40 nuclei: involved in internal remodeling and bone renewal.

Osteoclast

100

Compact bone of adults is made up of cylindrical subunit

Haversian systems of osteons

101

made up of 5-15 lamellae of calcified matrix arranged around a central canal

Osteons

102

oblique enamels that pass through lamellae that connects the central canal of the osteons or to the marrow cavity

Volkmann's canal

103

parallel lamellae that occupies the angular areas between the osteons

Interstitial lamellae

104

thin refractile layer that lines the outer boundaries of each haversian system

Cement line

105

beneath the periosteon: go around the entire circumference of the shaft without interruption

Outer circumferential lamellae

106

bone is formed by replacing the primitive connective tissue

Intramembranous ossification

107

bone formation takes place in pre-existing cartilage. Occurs in long bones of the skeleton

Endochondral ossification

108

Largest organ in the body

Skin

109

continuously proliferating stratifies squamous epithelium which produces a non-living protein called keratin.

Epidermis

110

consist of fibrous & fibroadipose tissue which supports the epidermis. It is where blood vessels, nerves & sensory receptors are found.

Dermis

111

underneath the dermis; contains adipose tissue & supporting fibrous bands; contains the longer blood vessels.

Subcutis/ hypodermis/ panniculus