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Flashcards in PREPARATION AND TRAINING Deck (66):
1

Just read the introduction for preparation and training.

In order to improve performance, training must be planned effectively. Top class elite athletes will plan their training year carefully to optimise their performance. Each individual training session will be well planned, using the principles of training, in order for improvements to be made.

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Quantitative data

  • Objective - based upon facts and is
  • measurable
  • numerical
  • meaningful

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Qualitative data

  • Subjective- based upon personal opinions
  • Assumptions
  • Emotions/interpretations

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When testing a performer, what is important about the test?

It has to be valid and it is set up so that the results are reliable.

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What is validity?

When the test measures what it's supposed to measure.

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Does the test measure what it is supposed to test?

eg the vertical jump is a valid test of power as it tests what it's supposed to.

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Is the test sport specific?

eg multistage fitness test involves running so it is valid for a games player where lots of running is involved, but not valid for a swimmer where the movements are different.

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What is reliability?

Can be repeated accurately and results compared.

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Can the findings be repeated?

If the findings of a test can be repeated, it is said to be reliable. This would mean that several people could undergo the test and their results would be comparable.

 

For example, during 30m sprint all performers should run the same distance of max effort with a flying start.

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To ensure a test is reliable...

  • Tester should be experienced
  • Equipment should be standardised
  • Repetition of tests to avoid human error
  • Follow test procedures

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Illinois Agility Test

 

  1. Type of data
  2. Validity - What sport would make this valid / invalid?
  3. Reliability

  1. Quantitative
  2. Valid - games player    Invalid - Rower
  3. ---Start and stop at same place                                    --- Nobody misses out cones

 

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Vertical Jump

  1. Type of data
  2. Validity - What sport would make this valid / invalid?
  3. Reliability

  1. Quantitative
  2. Valid - long jumper    /     Invalid - Shot putter
  3. ---Everybody starts at correct height                           --- Chalk fingers so reading height is reliable

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30m Sprint

  1. Type of data
  2. Validity - What sport would make this valid / invalid?
  3. Reliability

  1. Quantitative
  2. Valid - 100m sprinter    /    Invallid - Boxer
  3. ---everybody runs same distance                                 --- timed from start to finish

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What are the three parts of a warm up?

1. General Warm Up -Body temperature raising phase

2. Stretching - Those joints and muscles that are to be used in the activity

3. Specific Warm Up - Practice the skills that will be used in the sport

 

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What are the effect of a warm-up?

  1. Release of synovial fluid
  2. Improved blood flow
  3. Increased body & muscle temperature
  4. Practice of same skills as in activity
  5. Increased sensitivity of nerve receptors

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Warm up

 

Improved blood flow

  • Capillaries dilate to improve oxygen delievry to muscle tissues
  • Increased blood flow to heart which increases efficiency

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Warm up

 

Increased body & muscle temperature

 

  • Elasticity & flexibility of muscles increases
  • Reduces possibility of injury
  • Faster chemical reactions

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Warm up

 

Practice of same skills as in activity

  • Increases alertness
  • Mental rehearsal
  • Reduces stress or anxiety

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Warm up

 

Increased sensitivity of nerve receptors

  • Speeds up nerve conduction
  • Improves reaction time

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What are the main components of a cool down?

Jogging/Walking

5-10 mins sub-maximal (reduced intensity) exercise

 

Stretching

5-10 mins static stretching.

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What does a cool down do?

  • Return heart rate to resting levels gradually
  • Reduces body temperature
  • Flushes oxygenated blood through capillaries
  • Oxidises & removes lactic acid
  • Reduces chance of dizziness due to blood pooling
  • Maintains venous return mechanisms
  • Reduces potential for DOMS
  • Reduces level of adrenaline in blood
  • Psychological benefit

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Types of stretching

  • Static stretching
  • Active
  • Passive
  • PNF
  • Ballistic

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Static stretching

STATIC stretching is stretching while NOT moving

It can be active or passive

Stretch to farthest position and hold with isometric contraction.

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Active stretching

Active- involves the performer working on one joint, pushing it beyond its point of resistance, lengthening the muscle

  • Position held by agonist muscles
  • No assistance from external force

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Passive Stretching

Position held by another

  • body part
  • partner
  • other external force

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PNF

Form of static stretching

  • Stretch to farthest position
  • Hold isometric contraction for 10 secs
  • Relax and thenstretch further
  • Best way of increasing flexibility 

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Ballistic

  • Uses momentum to swing or bounce in and out of stretch
  • Not recommended as can lead to injury
  • Should only do if you are extremely flexible

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Principles of Training

What parts are there in the principles of training?

-Specificity

-Progression

-Overload (FITT)

-Reversibility

-Recovery

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Principles of training

Specificity

Training should be made relevant to the activity or sport and the individual.

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Principles of training

Specificity

The Sport

Training is made specific to the sport by replicating the following factors:

·Muscles used

·Intensity & duration needed

·Energy systems used

·Components of fitness required

·Skills needed

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Principles of training

Specificity

The Individual

Training needs to be specific to the individual by tailoring it to the individual’s

·Fitness

·Attitude/motivation

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Principles of training

Progression

Increasing the intensity / demands of the training as the body makes adaptations.

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Principles of training

Overload

Applying a greater workload than usual will cause the put the body’s systems under stress and they will make adaptations to the training. It is based on the “no pain no gain” saying – if the training doesn’t feel uncomfortable, then the individual will not get any fitter.

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Principles of training

Overload

What is meant by the term progressive overload?

Progression and overload are closely linked; as overload is applied and the body starts to make adaptations, it must be gradually increased which is progression.

Progressive overload can be achieved by applying the FITT principle

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Principles of training

Overload

Progressive Overload

How can it be achieved?

Applying the FITT principle

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Principles of training

Overload

Progressive Overload

-Frequency

-What is it?

-How can it be used to achieve progressive overload? (relate to athlete)

What is it? ·How often an individual trains.

How can it be used to achieve progressive overload? (Include also how often an athlete should train for aerobic fitness and for strength/speed)

·To achieve progressive overload an individual needs to train more often.

·Training for aerobic activities can be 5-6 times a week

·Training for strength & speed requires more recovery and should only be 3-4 times per week

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Principles of training

Overload

Progressive Overload

Intensity

-What is it?

-To achieve PO the training need to be made harder by..

·How difficult the exercise is/what percentage of your maximum

To achieve progressive overload the training need to be made harder by

·Working harder/running faster

·Lifting more weight

·Decreasing the rest

·Making the work intervals longer

·Including more intervals/stations

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Principles of training

Overload

Progressive Overload

Time

-What is it?

-How can it be used to achieve PO? (Include the duration of a training session for unfit and fit performers)

What is it?

·How long a training session lasts

How can it be used to achieve progressive overload? (Include the duration of a training session for unfit and fit performers)

·To achieve progressive overload train for longer

·An unfit performer may train for 20-30minutes

·A fit performer will train for longer: 45-60 minutes

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Principles of training

Overload

Progressive Overload

Type

What is it?

·What kind of training an athlete does

How can it be used to achieve progressive overload?

·E.g. continuous, intermittent, plyometric, circuit, weights, mobility

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Principles of Training

Reversibility

Use it or lose it! If a performer’s training load decreases or stops completely their fitness will deteriorate. So unless a performer is injured they should continue training.

Fitness is lost about a third faster than it is gained. So 6 weeks of training can be lost after only 2 weeks of inactivity.

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Principles of Training

Recovery

 

Rest days are needed to allow the body to recover from training.

Research suggests that a 3:1 ratio should be used, for example train hard for 3 days and then rest for one.

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Method of Training

Continuous Training

What is it?

•Low intensity

•60-85% MHR

•Uses large muscle groups

•No rest

•Long duration: 30 min- 2hrs

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Method of Training

Continuous Training

Examples?

·Rowing

·Cycling

·Running

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Method of Training

Continuous Training

Advantages

·Improves cardio-vascular/muscular endurance

·Time efficient

·Low risk of injury

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Method of Training

Continuous Training

Disadvantages

·Boring/tedius

·Not always specific to team sports

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Method of Training

Interval Training

What is it?

•Periods of alternating rest & exercise

•Can vary

oDistance/time of interval

oIntensity of work

oNumber of reps/sets

oDuration of rest

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Method of Training

Interval Training

Examples?

5000m Runner:

3 x 100m (125% PB)

Rest 1.5 x time

Sprinter:

3 x 10 reps x 30m

5 min rest in-between

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Method of Training

Interval Training

Advantages

·Can be made sport specific (varying distance/intensity etc.)

·Adds variety of pace

·Greater adaptation due to higher intensities

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Method of Training

Interval Training

Disadvantages

·Needs more recovery time

·Need track / stopwatch to measure accuracy

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Method of Training

Circuit Training

What is it?

•Series of performed exercises with rest in between

•Develops cardiorespiratory and muscular endurance

•Successive station stress different muscle groups

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Method of Training

Circuit Training

Examples?

·8 stations x 30 sec duration (repeat 2-3 times)

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Method of Training

Circuit Training

Advantages

- Large numbers at once

-Made Sport specific

-Develop several components of fitness

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Method of Training

Circuit Training

Disadvantages

-Requires equipment

-Does not produce maximal improvement in strength/stamina

-Does not meet the needs of some activities

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Method of Training

Weight Training

What is it?

•Session divided into reps and sets

•Use free weights or resistance machines

•Interval training method

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Method of Training

Weight Training

Examples?

oMax strength - 5 sets of 6 reps 85% 1RM

Strength Endurance – 3 sets of 20 reps 60%1RM

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Method of Training

Weight Training

Advantages

·Best method for improving strength

·Can replicate sporting movements

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Method of Training

Weight Training

Disadvantages

·Greater risk of injury

·Specialist equipment

·Technique important

·May need more recovery than continuous

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Method of Training

Fartlek Training

What is it?

•Means speed play

•Pace of the run is varied

•Stresses both aerobic and anaerobic system

•Intensity ranges from low to high

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Method of Training

Fartlek Training

Examples?

·Good for games players,

·10 min jogging

o6 x (20sec fast running 80 sec slow recovery)

o5 min walking

o5 min jogging

oUphill 1 min

o3 min jog

o2 min walk

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Method of Training

Fartlek Training

Advantages (compared to continuous)

·Stresses both systems, meet the needs of different athletes

·Variety of pace

·Higher intensities can be achieved

·Make sport specific

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Method of Training

Fartlek Training

Disadvantages (compared to continuous)

·Higher intensities increase risk of injury

·Needs more recovery time

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Method of Training

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

What is it?

An advanced stretching technique which involves overriding the stretch reflex (see neuromuscular) to improve flexibility

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Method of Training

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

Examples

-With the help of a partner, stretch the target muscle to the limit

-Isometrically contract the muscle for 10 secs

-Relax the muscle but partner prevents any movement

-Stretch the muscle further

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Method of Training

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

Advantages

The most effective form of flexibility training

Can also help improve speed and elastic strength

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Method of Training

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

Disadvantages

-Need a partner to provide a passive stretch

-Increase risk of injury

-So should be experienced before using this method

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