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Flashcards in Primate Characteristics Deck (41)
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1

Primates have less of their brain (relative to other mammals) dedicated to olfaction.  This is due to...

The reduced reliance on smell

2

Primate locomotion describes...

How the primate moves, and how long their limbs are relative to others because of how they move

3

Primates have adapted to eating a wide variety of foods.  Which main primate characteristic does this fall within?

Dietary plasticity

4

What is the primitive mammalian dental formula?

3.1.4.3

5

What are exceptions to the opposable thumb and big toe characteristics in primates?

Not all New World monkeys have opposable thumbs

Humans do not have opposable toes

6

Primates have behaviorally and anatomically adapted (by way of natural selection) traits that ensure fitness while living in trees.  Which main primate characteristic does this fall within?

Arboreal adaptations

7

What is an exception to the "nails instead of claws" feature in primates?

Some prosimians retain claws

8

What does "prehensile" mean?

Adapted for grasping (wrapping around an object)

9

What are the 4 main categories of primate characteristics?

Generalized morphology

Arboreal adaptations

Dietary plasticity

Parental investment

10

The type of locomotion that is characterized by very long hindlimbs relative to forelimbs and is typical of Prosimians is called...

VCL (vertical clinging and leaping)

11

Where are living primates found?

Tropical and semitropical areas in the New and Old Worlds

12

What does the dental formula describe?

The number of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars (in that order) in each quadrant of the mouth

13

What is the importance of having tactile pads?

Enhanced sense of touch (helps to offset reduced sense of smell and hearing)

14

What is the name for a tail that can grasp (only found in some New World monkeys)?

Prehensile tail

15

Being that primates do not have claws, what do they use to climb trees?

Their prehensile ability

16

What does binocular vision mean?

The eyes have overlapping fields of vision, allowing for enhanced depth perception (also necessary for 3D imaging)

17

Primates have a tendency towards what type of posture?

Erect

18

What does stereoscopic vision mean?

The information from both eyes is processed on both sides of the brain, increasing depth perception (allowing for 3D image processing)

19

What is the purpose of studying non-human primates?

To test evolutionary hypotheses, learn about biology and ecology, as a last chance to understand many species, and to learn about humans - specifically, what characteristics are unique to us and what characteristics are because we are primates.

20

What do all primates have to help protect their eyes that other mammals do not have?

A post-orbital bar or post-orbital plate

21

Parental investment is necessary because of the primate's dependence on what type of behavior?

Flexible, learned behavior - the parent must teach the child the behaviors that are important for survival, rather than the child exclusively relying on instinct

22

All diurnal primates have what type of vision?

Color

23

Compared to other mammals, the primate brain is...

Large (relative to body size) and more complex

24

An important arboreal adaptation in primates is the presence of what type of vision?

Binocular and stereoscopic

25

The 4 types of teeth in all primates are:

Incisors

Canines

Premolars

Molars

26

This type of locomotion is true, arm-over-arm swinging in trees.  It results in longer forelimbs and shorter hindlimbs.

Brachiation

27

What are some important features of primate hands and feet?

5 digits (pentadactyly)

Opposable thumbs and big toes

Tactile pads

Nails, not claws 

28

Due to the muscular structure of their hands, African apes practice what type of quadrupedal locomotion?

Knuckle-walking

29

Due to the muscular structure of their hands, orang-utans practice what type of quadrupedal locomotion?

Quadrumanual/fist walking

30

This primitive characteristic has been lost in many other mammals (such as dogs, cats, horses, etc.), but has been retained in all primates

Clavicle