Principal Mediators Flashcards Preview

Inflammation > Principal Mediators > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principal Mediators Deck (16):
1

Histamine

  • Mast cells, basophils, platelets
  • Vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, endothelial activation

2

Prostaglandins

  • Mast cells, leukocytes
  • Vasodilation, pain, fever

3

Leukotrienes

  • Mast cells, leukocytes
  • Increased vascular permeability, chemotaxis, leukocyte adhesion, and activation

4

Inflammatory cytokines

  • TNF, IL-1, IL-6
  • Macrophages, endothelial cells, mast cells
  • Local effects:  endothelial activation, expression of adhesion molecules
  • Systemic effects:  fever, metabolic abnormalities, hypotension

5

Chemokines

  • Leukocytes, activated macrophages
  • Chemotaxis, leukocyte activation

6

Platelet Activating Factor

  • Leukocytes, mast cells
  • Vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, leukocyte adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, oxidative burst

7

Complement

  • Present in plasma (source is liver)
  • Effects include: leukocyte chemotaxis and activation, direct targe killing via membrane attack complexes, vasodialtion via mast cell stimulation

8

Kinins

  • Present in plasma (source is liver)
  • Effects include: increased vascular permeabitliy, smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, pain

9

Cell derived mediators

Sequestered in intracellular granules and rapidly secreted by granule exocytosis (e.g. histamine in mast cell granules)

OR

Synthesized de novo in response to stimulus (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, cytokines)

 

10

Plasma derived mediators

Complement proteins

Produced by liver and circulate in plasma as inactive precursors.

Must be activated by series of proteolytic cleavages to become biologically active

 

11

Vasodilation

Mediators: histamine, prostaglandins

12

Increased vascular permeability

Mediators: 

  • histamine
  • serotonin
  • C3a
  • C5a
  • Leukotrienes C4, D4, E4

13

Chemotaxis

Leukocyte recruitment

Leukocyte activation

Mediators:

  • TNF
  • IL-1
  • Chemokines
  • C3a, C5a
  • Leukotriene B4

14

Fever

Mediators:

  • IL0-1
  • TNF
  • Prostaglandins

15

Pain

Mediators:

  • Prostaglandins
  • Bradykinin

16

Tissue Damage

Mediators:

  • Lysosomal enzymes of leukocytes
  • Reactive oxygen species