Flashcards in Professor Wainwright Deck (46):
What is mycology?
The study of fungal diversity
What are the three types of fungi with regard to their spores?
-Ascomycetes (Bags of spores)
What does filamentous mean?
They grow in filaments
What are the properties of ascospores?
-Multiple in an ascus (bag)
What are the properties of basidiospores?
-Not in a bag, pointed
-E.g. Normal mushroom/toadstool
What are the properties of deuteromycetes?
How does yeast grow?
What are the two types of human fungal infections?
-Dermatophytoses: Skin infections. E.g. Athletes foot
-Systemic mycoses: Inside the body. E.g. Farmers lung
What are examples of anti-fungal antibiotics?
-Amphotericin B (Systemic infections)
What is an appressorium?
A waxy layer on a plant leaf that protects from fungal infection
What are a plants methods of protecting themselves from fungal infection?
-Producing waxy surfaces or surface hairs
-Enclosing the infection in cork
-Producing phytoalexins (Internal fungicides)
How can we protect plants from fungal infection?
-Developing resistant plants
What are theories on the origin of life?
-RNA-DNA world (Originally self-replicating RNA)
-Clay theory (Self-replicating clay crystals were intermediate)
-Panspermia (Life from outer space)
What was Pasteurs flask experiment?
-Air needed for boiled chemicals to grow microbes
-Shows spontaneous life generation theory wrong
What are the roles of microbes in the environment?
-Maintain atmospheric mix and soil fertility
What are the stages of the nitrogen cycle?
What are the aims of sewage treatment?
Remove wastes and pathogens
What are the types of sewage treatment system?
-Filter bed or contact bed
-Activated sludge process
What are methods of testing drinking water?
-Membrane coliform count
-Biochemical or biological oxygen demand
-Add some chlorine
What did Antonie van Leeuwenhoek do in the 1670s?
Observed microorganisms with a single lens microscope
What did Lady Montagu Wortley do in 1721?
Discovered smallpox inoculation
What did Jenner and Jetsy introduce in 1796 and 1774?
What did Semmelweis introduce in 1847?
-Recognised that doctors and midwives spread disease
What did Pasteur do in the 1860s?
-Defeated the theory of spontaneous generation
-Introduced an anthrax vaccine
What did Koch do in 1883/1883?
-Did work associating a single bacterium with a single disease
What are Koch's postulates?
Identifying the causative agent of a particular disease:
-Microorganism must be present in all the disease cases
-Pathogen can be isolated from host and grown in culture
-Pathogen must then cause disease when inoculated into a healthy animal
-Pathogen must then be re-isolated and shown to be the same as the original
What did Lord Lister do in the 1870s?
Introduce antiseptic surgery using carbolic acid
What did Paul Ehrlich do?
Discover Salversan, 606, the first antibacterial agent
What did Fleming do in 1928?
What did Florey and Chain do in 1940-45?
Develop penicillin for medicinal use
What did Hazen and Brown do in 1950s?
What did Marshall and Warren do?
Realised stomach ulcers caused by bacterial infection not stress
What did Domagk do?
Introduced the first sulfa drug, Prontosil
What is a haustorium?
When a fungus infects a plant, it grows a long haustorium which digests tissue
What are dermatophytoses?
-Skin infections cause by dermatophytes
-Dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that breakdown keratin
What is aerobic heterotrophy?
Obtaining of energy through respiration by breaking down carbon dioxide with water and heat
What is anaerobic heterotrophy?
Obtaining of energy through respiration by breaking down methane
What is autotrophy?
-Obtaining of energy through chemical reactions
-Either chemoautotrophy or photoautotrophy
What happens in ammonification in the nitrogen cycle?
-Conversion of organic N to ammonium in most environmental conditions
-Either symbiotic (Rhizobium) or asymbiotic (Azotobacter)
What happens in nitrification in the nitrogen cycle?
-Bacteria (Nitrosomonas) oxidises ammonium to nitrite (NO2-), gaining energy and fixing CO2
-Bacteria (Nitrobacter) oxidises nitrite to nitrate (NO3-), gaining energy and fixing CO2
What happens in denitrification in the nitrogen cycle?
Nitrate is reduced to N2 in anaerobic conditions
What is methicillin?
A broad-spectrum penicillin
What is biotherapy?
The use of living organisms to treat diseases
What is debridement therapy?
The use of maggots to treat indolent antibiotic resistant wounds
What makes honey antibacterial?
-Releases hydrogen peroxide
-Non-peroxide antibiotic activity