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MBB163 - Microbiology > Professor Wainwright > Flashcards

Flashcards in Professor Wainwright Deck (46):
1

What is mycology?

The study of fungal diversity

2

What are the three types of fungi with regard to their spores?

-Ascomycetes (Bags of spores)
-Basidiomycetes (Pointed)
-Deuteromycetes (Hidden)

3

What does filamentous mean?

They grow in filaments

4

What are the properties of ascospores?

-Multiple in an ascus (bag)
-Large

5

What are the properties of basidiospores?

-Not in a bag, pointed
-Large
-E.g. Normal mushroom/toadstool

6

What are the properties of deuteromycetes?

Hidden spores

7

How does yeast grow?

Via budding

8

What are the two types of human fungal infections?

-Dermatophytoses: Skin infections. E.g. Athletes foot

-Systemic mycoses: Inside the body. E.g. Farmers lung

9

What are examples of anti-fungal antibiotics?

-Nystatin (Thrush)
-Amphotericin B (Systemic infections)

10

What is an appressorium?

A waxy layer on a plant leaf that protects from fungal infection

11

What are a plants methods of protecting themselves from fungal infection?

-Producing waxy surfaces or surface hairs
-Enclosing the infection in cork
-Producing phytoalexins (Internal fungicides)

12

How can we protect plants from fungal infection?

-Quarantine
-Fungicides
-Developing resistant plants

13

What are theories on the origin of life?

-Chemical theory
-RNA-DNA world (Originally self-replicating RNA)
-Clay theory (Self-replicating clay crystals were intermediate)
-Panspermia (Life from outer space)

14

What was Pasteurs flask experiment?

-Air needed for boiled chemicals to grow microbes
-Shows spontaneous life generation theory wrong

15

What are the roles of microbes in the environment?

-Maintain atmospheric mix and soil fertility
-Remove wastes
-Photosynthesis
-Cycle elements

16

What are the stages of the nitrogen cycle?

-Ammonification
-Nitrification
-De-nitrification
-Nitrogen fixation

17

What are the aims of sewage treatment?

Remove wastes and pathogens

18

What are the types of sewage treatment system?

-Septic tank
-Filter bed or contact bed
-Activated sludge process

19

What are methods of testing drinking water?

-Membrane coliform count
-Biochemical or biological oxygen demand
-Add some chlorine

20

What did Antonie van Leeuwenhoek do in the 1670s?

Observed microorganisms with a single lens microscope

21

What did Lady Montagu Wortley do in 1721?

Discovered smallpox inoculation

22

What did Jenner and Jetsy introduce in 1796 and 1774?

Vaccination

23

What did Semmelweis introduce in 1847?

-Handwashing
-Recognised that doctors and midwives spread disease

24

What did Pasteur do in the 1860s?

-Defeated the theory of spontaneous generation
-Introduced pasteurisation
-Introduced an anthrax vaccine

25

What did Koch do in 1883/1883?

-Koch's postulates
-Did work associating a single bacterium with a single disease

26

What are Koch's postulates?

Identifying the causative agent of a particular disease:
-Microorganism must be present in all the disease cases
-Pathogen can be isolated from host and grown in culture
-Pathogen must then cause disease when inoculated into a healthy animal
-Pathogen must then be re-isolated and shown to be the same as the original

27

What did Lord Lister do in the 1870s?

Introduce antiseptic surgery using carbolic acid

28

What did Paul Ehrlich do?

Discover Salversan, 606, the first antibacterial agent

29

What did Fleming do in 1928?

Discover Penicillin

30

What did Florey and Chain do in 1940-45?

Develop penicillin for medicinal use

31

What did Hazen and Brown do in 1950s?

Discover Nystatin

32

What did Marshall and Warren do?

Realised stomach ulcers caused by bacterial infection not stress

33

What did Domagk do?

Introduced the first sulfa drug, Prontosil

34

What is a haustorium?

When a fungus infects a plant, it grows a long haustorium which digests tissue

35

What are dermatophytoses?

-Skin infections cause by dermatophytes
-Dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that breakdown keratin

36

What is aerobic heterotrophy?

Obtaining of energy through respiration by breaking down carbon dioxide with water and heat

37

What is anaerobic heterotrophy?

Obtaining of energy through respiration by breaking down methane

38

What is autotrophy?

-Obtaining of energy through chemical reactions
-Either chemoautotrophy or photoautotrophy

39

What happens in ammonification in the nitrogen cycle?

-Conversion of organic N to ammonium in most environmental conditions
-Either symbiotic (Rhizobium) or asymbiotic (Azotobacter)

40

What happens in nitrification in the nitrogen cycle?

-Bacteria (Nitrosomonas) oxidises ammonium to nitrite (NO2-), gaining energy and fixing CO2
-Bacteria (Nitrobacter) oxidises nitrite to nitrate (NO3-), gaining energy and fixing CO2

41

What happens in denitrification in the nitrogen cycle?

Nitrate is reduced to N2 in anaerobic conditions

42

What is methicillin?

A broad-spectrum penicillin

43

What is biotherapy?

The use of living organisms to treat diseases

44

What is debridement therapy?

The use of maggots to treat indolent antibiotic resistant wounds

45

What makes honey antibacterial?

-Osmotic effect
-Releases hydrogen peroxide
-Low pH
-Non-peroxide antibiotic activity

46

What is the chemical theory for life?

Life originated from simple chemicals