What is prejudice?
Literally means to prejudge someone or something. Refers to preconceived opinions or attitudes held by individuals towards other people or groups.
What is stereotypes?
A stereotype is a fixed way of thinking, involving generalisations and expectations about an issue or group of people.
What is discrimination?
The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people especially on grounds of race, age or sex.
What is socialisation?
The process by which young children learn the cultural values and norms of the society which they are born.
What is meant by primary socialisation?
Also give examples.
Primary socialisation is the process by which children learn their norms, attitudes and beliefs from their family. E.g. Good table manners, using discriminatory language, helping others/volunteering, not allowing friends of other races.
What is meant by secondary socialisation?
The process by which children learn their norms/attitudes/beliefs from others and society.
TYPICAL EXAM QUESTION
Identify and describe 5 agencies of socialisation and how they influence on a child’s attitude.
1) Religion. We can learn from a church (morals and values) Learn values from religious values-abide by the 10 commandments (do not kill) a minister preaches–> a child adopts this attitude.
2) Media. Children may learn the attitudes of characters in soaps, for example on the TV show HollyOaks a gay character is drug addict, which gives a negative portrayal of homosexuals. Children could adopt this attitude.
3) Workplace. A manager could be a bully and display negative behaviours. This could be seen as normal to the person at the job (be a bully to women)-others can follow.
4) Education. Within the school, teachers are good role models and treat each pupil equally. It provides opportunities for those with special needs (learning difficulties).
5) Peers. An individual in a friendship group may have a prejudice attitude to a certain group for example; Muslims, and be a bully to them. This can influence others to join in.
What is direct discrimination?
Occurs when race, colour, gender, sexuality, nationality, ethnic or national origin is used as an explicit reason for discriminating.
- Physical abuse.
- Verbal abuse.
What is indirect discrimination?
Give an example.
Occurs when there are rules, regulations or procedures operating, which have the effect of discriminating against certain groups of people.
E.g. Staff at a shop had to wear a uniform skirt but an Asian woman worker refused for religious reasons.
List discriminatory practices and explain.
Exclusion-not allowing job opportunities to someone due to marital status.
Verbal abuse- name calling.
Physical abuse-sexual abuse, hitting, kicking, punching.
Neglect-not feeding/cleaning/looking after a vulnerable person in an appropriate manner eg. Older person, young child.
Assumptions- making assumptions of someone due to race, sex, age etc. “all Muslims are terrorists”
Avoidance- avoiding someone in school due to their religion.
Gestures-rude hand gestures, dirty looks.
Devaluing- disrespecting, thinking a person or group as ‘inferior’-disabled/children/elderly/gender.
Effects (long term) of discrimination.
Social and economic status-single parent may be excluded therefore effects salary.
Health and wellbeing- sexual or physical abuse-physically scarred-long term damage.
Mentally scarred, ptsd, anxiety, phobias, low self esteem, depression-medication.
Socially withdrawn, isolated.
Self esteem and sense of empowerment-low self esteem, long term depression and meds. Socially isolated/withdrawn.
Personal dev. And relationships/fear of discrimination-exclude themselves, difficulty maintain relationships
What is social exclusion?
Excluding a group or individual from a good or service that others in society have access to.
What are attitudes?
Attitudes involve beliefs and values. Beliefs and values concern issues which are considered to be of fundamental importance.
What causes social exclusion?
Unemployment Poor skills Low income Poor housing Hugh crime environments Poor health Family breakdown
What is the equality act and name 4 of its features
The Equality Act 2010 is the equality commission which is an independent public body which oversees equality and discrimination law in NI. it provides advice for people who feel they have been discriminated against and promotes equality in NI.
•prohibits discrimination in education, employment, access to goods and services, management of premises and housing.
• makes discrimination illegal
•covers against groups from 9 protected characteristics which are age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage, and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religious belief, sex and sexual orientation.
•protects against victimisation and harassment.
What does SIMET stand for? Name each component and list one feature of each.
(falls under Equal Opportunities Policy)
Statement-aims and objectives of policy
Implementation-should state the responsibility of senior management
Monitoring and review-analysis of statistical data
Evaluation-identify whether the policy is ensured
Targets-work on any areas of weakness