Flashcards in Prostatic Disease Deck (18):
what is the normal size of the prostate?
3-4cm wide and 4-6cm long
why is benign prostatic hypertrophy and inaccurate term?
it is actually hyperplasia
what two factors are necessary for BPH to occur?
endocrine control and aging
what are the urinary symptoms of BPH?
obstructive - decreased force and calibre of urine stream, hesitancy, intermittency, terminal dribbling
Irritative symptoms - incomplete emptying, increased frequency, nocturia
what are the extraprostatic effects of prostate disease?
vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, renal failure, hernias, haemorrhoids, bladder stones, cystitis, pyelonephritis, haematuria
What investigating should be done on a patient with BPH?
rectal examination, urinalysis, U+Es and creatinine, uroflowmetry, US to check residual volume TRUS
What is the treatment of BPH?
usually no intervention, only intervention with recurrent infection of frank haematuria, TURP, Alpha-1 adrenergic anatgonists, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors
Name an alpha-1 adrenergic anagonist
Tamulosin, Alfuzosin, Doxazosin
What are the complications of TURP?
failure to void, haemorrhage, clot retention, retrograde ejaculation, incontinence, urethral stricture,
What is TUR syndrome?
there is absorption of irrigation fluid via venus sinuses, results in hypervolaemia, hyponatraemia, seizures.
How do you treat TUR syndrome?
by cystoscopically draining the fluid
What is the etiology of prostate disease?
FHx, hormonal influence, dietary factors,
What score is used for grading prostatic cancer?
Where does prostatic cancer most commonly metastasise to? (1)
What tumour marker is tested most commonly to screen for BPH or prostatic cancer?
How is prostate cancer diagnosis confirmed?
biopsy via rectum. If this is negative but there is still suspicion then an US guided biopsy of the 4 quadrants can be tested
What is the treatment of prostate cancer?
may not be necessary in older men. In younger men radical prostatectomy OR radiotherapy