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Flashcards in Protein Deck (14)
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1
Q

What are the 4 parts of a proteins chemical structure?

A

-Amino group
-Alpha carbon
-Carboxyl group
-R group

2
Q

What is the function of the R group?

A

-it gives amino acid its properties

3
Q

Describe the primary structure of proteins?

A
  • sequence of amino acids arranged in polypeptide chain
    -formed by covalent peptide bonds between the amine and carboxyl groups of adjacent amino acids
4
Q

Describe the secondary structure of proteins?

A

-the repeated folding of polypeptide chain to form alpha helixes and beta pleated sheets
-Due to hydrogen bonding between amine and carboxyl groups of non adjacent amino acids
–Provides stability

5
Q

Describe the tertiary structure of proteins?

A
  • the coiling of the polypeptide chain to form a complex molecular shape (3D structure)
    -Caused by interactions between R groups
    –Is important for the function of the protein
6
Q

Describe the quaternary structure of proteins?

A
  • multiple polypeptides interacting to form a single, larger, biologically active protein
    -Can be held together by a variety of bonds
7
Q

What happens to proteins in the stomach during digestion?

A

-High acidity in stomach causes proteins to denature making them more vulnerable to digestive enzymes
-Pepsinogen is also secreted in the stomach converting it to pepsin
-Pepsin is a protease which will further breakdown protein and breakdown the connective fibres in meat

8
Q

What happens to proteins in the intestines during digestion?

A

-Stomach juices enter duodenum and pepsin is inactivated due to the alkali pH of small intestines
-Pancreatic juices contain proteases which digest remaining proteins and polypeptides into tripeptides, dipeptides and single amino acids

9
Q

How are proteins absorbed from the intestines?

A

-The intestine wall has specific tripeptide, dipeptide and amino acid transporters within it
-This process requires energy as it goes against the concentration gradient
-Tripeptides, dipeptides and amino acids reach the epithelial cells where specific enzymes break them down
-These amino acids then enter the blood via an amino acid transporter

10
Q

what are anabolic reactions?

A

body builds new proteins for growth and repair

11
Q

what are the catabolic reactions?

A

breakdown of proteins for oxidation or use in future anabolic reactions

12
Q

what is protein turnover and what is it affected by?

A

-Is the balance between protein synthesis and protein breakdown
-Is affected by increases and decreases during synthesis and breakdown as it can alter net protein balance

13
Q

what is the effect of resistance training on protein synthesis and breakdown?

A

-Increases protein synthesis and breakdown equally
-Causes net protein balance to remain the same, meaning the persons muscle would also remain unchanged

14
Q

how can net protein balance be increased after resistance training?

A
  • sufficient protein intake is required
    -This causes protein synthesis to increase and stops elevation of protein breakdown