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Flashcards in Protein Deck (45):
1

Proteins differ from carbs and lipids how? (3)

-Contain nitrogen
-Must be continually synthesized (most synthesized in liver, also in plasma cells/bone marrow)
-Not stored for emergency use

2

What 4 hormones control protein SYNTHESIS?

1. Growth Hormone 2. Insulin 3. Testosterone 4. Thyroxine

3

What 2 hormones control protein CATABOLISM?

1. Cortisol 2. Glucagon

4

Nitrogen Balance. Negative and Positive causes:

Neg: excessive tissue destruction (burns), wasting disease, continual high fever, starvation.
Pos: periods of growth, pregnancy, repair processes

5

Total Serum Protein: TSP

albumin and globulin
(Globulins = a-1-globulin, a-2-globulin, B-globulin, and y-globulin proteins)

6

How do yo separate proteins?

Electrophroresis: technique separates proteins based on charge.

7

Clinical Application of Electrophoresis. What samples will you use this for?

serum, urine, CSF

8

Total Serum Protein (TSP) Function

Transport small molecules, receptors, catalyze biochemical rxns, structural, nutritional source, oncotic pressure, defense against foreign antigen, hormones, aids in maintenance of homeostasis, maintenance of acid-base balance

9

Total Serum Protein (TSP) Factors that affect it

malnutrition, hepatic function with dec. syntesis, renal functinon w/ inc. urinary loss, metabolic disorders and enzyme defects, GI function with dec. absorption or inc. loss, disease causing cellular proliferation, inc. synthesis, dehydration

10

Lab Measurement TSP specimens

Fasting serum: specimen of choice
Total urine protein, CSF protein, Body fluid protein.
Recommended to take concurrent samples for comparison.

11

Math equation to calculate globulins

TSP - albumin = globulins

12

Screening for Disorders, you can use 2 tests

TSP and albumin are a componenet of routine screening pannels (chem profile, metabolic, hepatic function, renal function)
Protein Electrophoresis (abnormal result warrants further follow up)

13

Acute Phase Reactants: Which are Positive (+APR) and Negative (-APR)?

Pos: Alpha-1antitrypsin (AAT), Hepatoglobin (HPT), Ceruloplasmin (CER), Fibrinogen (FBG), *C-reactive protein (CRP)
Neg: *Albumin (ALB), Pre-albumin (PALB), Transferrin (TRF)

14

Pre-albumin (PALB)

-Sensitive marker of nutritional status
-Transports thyroid hormone and retinol
-Routine clinical methods are not sensitive to visualize on SPE (Serum protein electrophoresis)

15

Decreased PALB (Prealbumin)

1. Liver disease (dec synthesis)
2. Malnutrition, anorexia, malabsorption
(-APR) Acute phase reactants

16

Albumin (ALB)

-Most predominant protein of TSP
-Functions to maintain oncotic pressure of plasma
-Predominant protein lost in renal disease
-Transports less soluble compounds
-Synthesized in liver

17

Decreased ALB (Albumin)

Liver disease, renal disease (NS), GI loss, (-APR)

18

Increased ALB (Albumin)

Dehydration

19

Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT)

Majority of alpha-1-globulins
Neutralizes trypsin-like enzymes
Phenotype MM

20

Decreased AAT (Alpha-1-antitrypsin)

Severe pulmonary disease, liver disease, juvenile hepatic cirrhosis

21

Increased AAT (Alpha-1-antitrypsin)

(+APR)

22

Aplha-2-macroglobulin (AMG)

HUGE protein: unable to pass glomerulus
Inhibits protease, inhibits thrombin

23

Increased AMG (Alpha-2-macroglobulin)

Nephrotic Syndrome (Up to 10x, maintains oncotic pressure in absence of albumin)

24

Haptoglobin (HPT)

-Binds free hemoglobin

25

Decreased Haptoglobin (HPT)

Hemolytic anemia

26

Increased Haptoglobin (HPT)

(+APR)

27

Ceruloplasmin (CER)

Contains >90% copper

28

Decreased Ceruloplasmin (CER)

Associated w/ Wilson's disease (dec serum copper, inc urine copper)
Liver Disease

29

Increased Ceruloplasmin (CER)

(+APR)

30

Transferrin (TRF)

Major component of beta-globulins
Transports iron in plasma

31

Decreased Transferrin (TRF)

Liver disease, renal disease, (-APR)

32

Increased Transferrin (TRF)

Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)

33

Beta-lipoprotein (LDL)

"Bad cholesterol"
Transports lipids (esp. cholesterol) through plasma

34

Increased Beta-lipoprotein (LDL)

Nephrotic syndrome, Increased risk of CHD

35

Complement C3 Component

-Components of beta globulins
-Participates in immune response contributing to cell lysis

36

Decreased Complement C3 Component

Recurrent infections

37

C-Reactive Protein (CRP)

Most sensitive of the APRs: levels rise within 24-48 hrs.
Serial measurements helpful

38

Increased C-Reactive Protein (CRP)

Inflammatory response
Cardiac risk assessment (need 'high sensitivity' method)

39

Imunoglobulins (Ig)

-Gamma globulins
-Antibodies: heavy chain, light chain
-Produced by plasma cells (B-cells) in bone marrow

40

Decreased Immunoglobulins (Ig)

"hypogammaglobulinemia":
Congenital, genetic (Selective IgA, Bruton's)
Acquired (NS, AIDS)

41

Increased Immunoglobulins (Ig)

"hypergammaglobulinemia":
-Polyclonal increase: response to infecion
-Monoclonal increase: unrestrained proliferation (multiple myeloma, waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia)

42

Increased Urine Protein

-Increased glomerular permeability (NS, renal disease)
-Multiple Myeloma (paraprotein)
-Intravascular hemolysis (hemoglobin)
-Tubular failure (drugs, toxins)

43

CSF Protein

Proteins in CSF from plasma, Normal pattern similar to SPE but in lower conc., Concurrent serum

44

CSF Protein Clinically measured why?

Assess integrity of blood brain barrier
Aid in diagnosis of disease

45

Increased CSF Protein

Meningitis, Multiple Sclerosis