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Flashcards in Psych Deck (86):
1

Classical Conditioning

Physical response to stimulus

2

Operant

Positive reinforcment
-Negative: Removal of a bad stimulus with a good action
-Punishment: giving a bad action a bad stimulus
-Extinction

3

Acting Out

Temper tantrum

4

Dissociation

Stress leads to a complete change in personality

5

Displacement

-Ideas a feeling are transferred to a neutral third party. Yell at kid because of problems at work

6

Identification

-Seeing yourself as a more powerful person
-Abused child see's themselves as the father

7

Isolation

removal of feelings from events and ideas

8

Projection

Internal negative feelings are attributed to an outside cause.
Husband who is cheating blames his wife for cheating

9

Reaction Formation

Negative percieved actions are replaced by the exact opposite. Adulterous man joins a monastery

10

Regression

-Go into immatuiry, more common in kids

11

Repression (blocking)

-Involuntary blocking of emotons or memories
-Forget that something happened

12

mature

below

13

Altruism

-Negative feelings are replaced by generous actions that benefit others

14

Sublimation

-Putting negative emotions into positive work

15

Supression

Voluntarily withholding negative ideas

16

ADHD

-Decreased Frontal Lobe volumes
-Tx: Methylphenidate and amphetamines, which will increase NE and DA in the frontal lobe

17

Tourettes

-Tics must last more than 1 year
-Tx with antipsychotics

18

Separation Anxiety

Can be treated with SSRI

19

Rett

X linked
-All girls
Small head and severe loss of abilities after normal development for 1-4 years. Hand wringing

20

Childhood disinegrative

Normal development for 2+ years followed by massive loss in social and self skills

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Anxiety

-Increase NE, Decrease GABA and 5HT

22

Depression

-Decreased NE, DA, 5HT

23

Alzheimers

decreased Ach, treat with centrally acting AchEI (Donepazil)

24

Huntingtons

-Decrease GABA increase DA, decrease Ach

25

Schizophrenia

-Inreased DA

26

PArkinsons

Decreased DA increased Ach, 5HT

27

DIssociative Amnesia

-Loss of memory of important personal information following trauma.

28

Delerium

-Rapid onset of a loss of mental abilities, hypersomnolence
-Psychotic symptoms, hallucinations, etc
-Decreased attention span, decreased level of arousal and abnormal EEG
-Caused secondary to some other illness and thus reversible. Anticholinergics,
-May be treated with antipsychotics but also supportive care

29

Dementia

Gradual decline in mental capacity, especially memory
-Normal EEG
-Irreversible

30

Psychosis

Hallucinations, delusions, illusions, disorganized speech
-Visual: Drugs
-Auditory: mental illness
-Tactile: Alcohol and cocaine
-Olfactory: Siezures

31

Schizophrenia

Must last more than 6 months of psychotic disorder
-Positive symptoms (dellusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech) also negative symptoms such as flat affect and social withdrawl

32

Brief Psychotic Disorder

-Arises in response to stress and lasts less than 1 month

33

Schizophreniform

-1-6 months

34

Schizoaffective

2 weeks of schizophrenia and mood disorder

35

Dellusional Disorder

-Fixed dellusion that lasts more than one month but does not affect ones day to day life

36

Mania

DIGFAST
-Disorganized speech, irritability, grandiosity, flight of ideas, agitation, decreased sleep, talkative
-Hypomania is just a step below

37

Bipolar

-Characterized by manic episodes and depressed episodes
-Be sure to treat with mood stabalizer before givinig antidepressants as antidepressants could cause suicide
-Type I is manic and type 2 is hypomanic

38

Cyclothymia

Disorder that lasts 2 years or greater that has mild depression and hypomania

39

Major Depression

SIGMECAPS
-Sleep, Interest, Guilt, Mood (Required), Energy, Concentration, appetite, Psychomotor slowing, Suicide

40

Dysthymia

-2 years plus of milder depressive symptoms

41

Atypical Depression

The most common subtype
-Can experience positive and negative mood in response to life changes.
-Hypersensitivity to rejection
-Psychomotor slowing, somnolence, weight gain
-TX with MAOI or SSRI

42

Postpartum

Blues: less than 14 days = crying, depressed affect, fatgue
Depression: longer than 2 weeks. Depressed mood and anxiety, poor concentration
Psychosis: Hallucinations, illusions, confusion. Danger to baby and must take away

43

Electroconvulsive therapy

-Induction of brief siezures in anethsatized patient
-Used to treat refractory, pregnant, or urgent psychosis
-May cause disorientation and anterograde/retrograde amnesia

44

Anxiety Disoerders

OCD, Panic, GAD, Social/specific phobia, agoraphibia, etc

45

Panic Disorder

-Severe acute somatic symptoms that interfere with daily life
-Tx: Benzos, SSRI, venlafaxine

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Agoraphobia

-Intese anxiety and fear over a specific situation
-Commonly associated with panic disorder

47

Specific Phobia

-Fear outside of what is reasonable, patient is usually aware
-Tx SSRI or CBT

48

Social Phobia

-Fear of performing in specific situations
-Restroom and public speaking are most common
-Can give beta blockers for public speaking and can CBT for restroom etc

49

OCD

-Obsessions and repetitive actions of tasks that are inconcsitent with beliefs and attitudes.
-Distinguish with Obsessive Compulsive personality where actions are consistent with ones own beliefs
-Tx: SSRI, clomipramine
-Commonly associated with tourettes

50

PTSD

Flashbacks and hieghtened vigalence in response to a tramatic event
-Must last more than a month or else is an acute stress disorder
-Treated with SSRI and CBT

51

GAD

Anxiety that is not related to a specific event or idea or person
-Present for more than 6 months
-SSRI, SNRI

52

ADjustment Disoreder

Emotional symptoms of depression and or anxiety in response to an identifiable emotional stressor
-Lasts shorter than 6 months

53

Somatization

-Multiple complaints in multiple organ systems before patient is 30 yers of age. Dont confuse with conversion

54

Conversion

-Loss of control motor or sensory following an acute stressor
-More common in women and young adults

-Patient may not always be aware of problem

55

Pain Disorder

Recurrent complaints that only revolve around pain

56

Hypochondriasis

-Inreasonable fear of SEVERE illness

57

Cluster A

-Odd thinking and impaired social relationships, commonly associated with schizophrenia
-Schizoid, Schizotypal, Paranoid

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Paranoid

-Distrust

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Schizoid

-Lack of interest in social interaction. Voluntary isolation

60

Schizotypal

-Odd thining and eccentric behavior

61

Cluster B

-Impaired understanding of social norms. Associated with substance abuse and mood disorders

62

Antisocial

-Lack of respect and awarness of social bounds
-Comes out of conduct disorder. Likely to be criminals and likey to hav substance abuse

63

Borderline

-Unstable activities and relationships.
-Self mutilation, emptiness
-Splitting is commmonly seen

64

Histrionic

-Obsessed with appearance
-Sexually provacative and attention seeking

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Narcasistic

-Grandiose ideas of self achievment and self entitlment
-Meets disrespsect or criticism with rage

66

Cluster C

Anxious and worry disorders, highly associatedd with anxiety

67

Avoidant

Desires social relationships but is hypersensitive to rejection

68

Obsessive Compulsive

Obsesion with order and perfectionism
-Consistent with ones own beliefs as opposed to OCD

69

Dependent

-Low self confidence and dependence on others
-Submissive

70

Anorexa

Decreased weight, coexists with depression

71

Bulemia

Binging and purging, generally normal BMI
-Scars on knuckles, parotiditis, enamal wasting

72

Transexualism vs transvestite

-Transexual actually wants to be the opposite gender and transvestite is just a paraphilia that wants to dress like one

73

Amphetamines

-Cause the release of caethacholamines from nerve terminals
-Hyper SANS stimulation
-Risk of siezures and heart attack
-Acidification of urine will increase excretion rate

74

Substance abuse stages

-Precontemplation
-Contemplation
-Planning
-Action
-Maintenance
-Relapse

75

Alcohol

-Respiratory depression, especially if combined with other sedatives
-Serum gamma gltamuyl transferase, also AST is 2x ALT

76

Delerium Tremens

-Hyperactivation of SANS, peaks at 2-5 days post stop drinking
-Begins with hypertension, siezures
-Hallucinations (tactile)
-Confusion, coma, death

77

Malory Weis

tear

78

Other conditoi

Anemia megaloblastic
Testicular atrophy
vitamin deficency
Cirrhosis, HCC, SCC oral

79

WK

Opthalmolpegia, Ataxia, Amnesia
-Anterograde amnesia leads to confabulations

80

Opiods

Respiratory and CNS depression
-decreased gag reflex and siezures
-Do not give oxygen and give naloxone which is a mu antagonist
-Naltrexone is a weaker antagonist and best used for withdrawl symptoms
-Methadone has longer half life and is used to treat withdrawl
-Buprenoprhine is a partial agonist and is often given with naltrexone
-Withdrawl is cold turkey with flu like symptoms, anxiety, diahhrea, rhinorrhea, yawning

81

Barbiturates

-Induce GABA current
-Can cause repiratory depression and reduced BP leading to death
-Tx is supportive

82

Benzos

GABAa partial agonist, inlikely to cuase respiratory depression and death
-Flumezanil is competeitve antagonist at benzo binding site
-Rebound anxiety and changes in sleep are seen in rapid withdrawl

83

COcaine

-Poor judgment, paranoia, hallucinations
-No beligerance or nystagmus (differentiation from PCP)
-Can cause siezures and cardiac arrest
-Tx of overdose with benzos

84

Nicotine

Withdrawl can be treated with buproprion and varenicline

85

PCP

Belligerance and nystagmus
-Trauma is the most common cause of death
-Can also get rhabdo
-Tx: benzo

86

Marijauna

-Anxiety, parnoia, laziness and apetite
-Dry mouth and conjunctival injection from vasodilation
-Withdrawl can cause irritability, depression, insomnia, etc