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Flashcards in Psych Deck (67):
1

Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that an individual will alter his/her _____, _____ or _____ to reduce the resulting discomfort.

Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that an individual will alter his/her attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors to reduce the resulting discomfort.

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2

_________ refers to ideas, attitudes, and behaviors that are widespread in society and reflects the beliefs and behaviors of the masses.

Popular culture refers to ideas, attitudes, and behaviors that are widespread in society and reflects the beliefs and behaviors of the masses.

3

________ describes changes in human values, practices, and/or beliefs that are not due to genes (i.e. increasing food portions)

Cultural evolution describes changes in human values, practices, and/or beliefs that are not due to genes (i.e. increasing food portions)

4

Cultural transmission is the passing of knowledge and values to the next generation and occurs within ____ groups while cultural diffusion is the spread of beliefs and behaviors from one cultural group to another and happens diffusion between _____ groups.

Cultural transmission is the passing of knowledge and values to the next generation and occurs within in groups while cultural diffusion is the spread of beliefs and behaviors from one cultural group to another and happens diffusion between out groups.

5

_______ is a cognitive bias in which an event is perceived as being likely or predictable after it has occurred, even if it was not likely to happen. For example, after a team scores an upset victory, people might declare that they knew it would happen all along.

Hindsight bias is a cognitive bias in which an event is perceived as being likely or predictable after it has occurred, even if it was not likely to happen. For example, after a team scores an upset victory, people might declare that they knew it would happen all along.

6

Which are the 6 major theoretical approaches to sociology?

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7

 What are the three general population pyramid shapes? 

Expanding, stationary, and contracting.

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8

According to psychoanalytic theory, ____ defense mechanisms are an unconscious way to deal with the anxiety caused by unacceptable urges and thoughts. 

According to psychoanalytic theory, ego defense mechanisms are an unconscious way to deal with the anxiety caused by unacceptable urges and thoughts. 

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9

______ results from an increase in NT release and postsynaptic receptors 

Long term potentiation results from an increase in NT release and postsynaptic receptors 

10

Which lobe is responsible for voluntary motor initiation?

Frontal lobe 

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11

Which theory is described below:

1. Each part of society works to maintain dynamic equilibrium?

2. Stuggle for limited resources?

3. Meaning and value attached to symbols?

 

1. Each part of society works to maintain dynamic equilibrium?

Functionalism

2. Stuggle for limited resources?

Conflict theory

3. Meaning and value attached to symbols?

Symbolic interactionism

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12

Describe the difference between the types of population pyramids: expanding, stationary, and contracting.

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13

Ability to multitask is impacted by similarity, difficulty, and practicce. Are similar or different tasks easier to perform simultaneously?

Tasks that are dissimilar, less difficult, and/or well practiced are easier to perform simultaneously.

14

A(n) ________ kinship is based on genetic relationship whereas a(n) _____ kinship is based on marriage 

A(n) consanguineal kinship is based on genetic relationship whereas a(n) affinal kinship is based on marriage 

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15

The _____ experience discusses how chronically ill individuals manage their illness in daily life and what effect illness has on their sense of self-identity

The illness experience discusses how chronically ill individuals manage their illness in daily life and what effect illness has on their sense of self-identity

16

Which of Kohlbergs levels is described by these stages: obedience and punishment + self-interest?

Preconventional (based on consequences)

17

Which of Kohlbergs levels is described by these stages: conformity + law and order?

Conventional (society's norms and values)

18

The ________ ________ theory by Marcia evaluates the psychological progress of individuals based on their level of commitment and degree of exploration. 

The identity developement theory by Marcia evaluates the psychological progress of individuals based on their level of commitment and degree of exploration. 

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19

Which reinforcement schedule has the most rapid response rate? Which has a rapid AND steady response rate and is resistant to extinction?

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20

Which major sociological approach to aging is described below:

1. remaining socially active improves QOL

2. attempt to maintain habits from youth

3. withdraw from society and society withdraws from them

4. aging viewed holistically

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21

Describe the difference between the common sense theory, James-Lange, Canon-Bard, and S-Singer.

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22

Which of the three is the most deviant: folkway, more, or taboos? Give an example.

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23

Describe the 4 methods of problem solving: insight, trial and error, heuristics, and algorithms

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24

What are Piaget's 4 stages in order? Provide a short description. 

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25

_____ is a theory in psychology that focuses on the role the environment plays in shaping human behavior.  Specifically, focusing on how reinforcement and punishment shape human behavior.

Behaviorism is a theory in psychology that focuses on the role the environment plays in shaping human behavior.  Specifically, focusing on how reinforcement and punishment shape human behavior.

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26

_______ is used to control for the potential effects that the order of intervention administration may have on results

Counterbalancing is used to control for the potential effects that the order of intervention administration may have on results

27

According to the _____ theory, personality change is possible when a person has a strong ego that can successfully mediate between the id and superego

According to the psychoanalytic theory, personality change is possible when a person has a strong ego that can successfully mediate between the id and superego

28

Which psychotherapeutic approach is described below: unconditional positive regard and empathy used to encourage client to reach full potential (slef-actualization)?

Humanistic

29

Which psychotherapeutic approach is described below: desensitization, rwarding healthy behaviors, self-talk to replace destructive thoughts/behavior with healthy ones?

Cognitive behavioral therapy

30

The _____ theory of motivation proposes that individuals are motivated to act based on the expected outcomes of their behavior.

The expectancy theory of motivation proposes that individuals are motivated to act based on the expected outcomes of their behavior.

31

The perception of a cup in figure 1 is best attributed to which Gestalt principle of perceptual organization? 

a. similarity

b. invariance

c. subjective contours 

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Subjective contours 

Allows us to "fill in" contours that are not explicitly shown.

32

Which Gestalt principle is decribed below:  suggests that objects can be recognized despite alterations in orientation, lighting, scale, and slight alterations in the objects' component features?

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33

Spatial orientation and balance rely on input from three systems. Which are they?  

Visual system, vestibular system (semicircular canals and otolith organs), and somatosensory system (proprioception).  

34

What are the three monoamines?

Serotonin, NE, dopamine

35

______ enhances alertness

NE enhances alertness

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36

Schizophrenia is often treated with neuroleptic antipsychotic medication. This works to reduce _____ symtoms

Postitive symptoms; hallucinations, disorganized speech, delusions

37

____ occurs when an individual unconsciously generates an acceptable excuse for an unacceptable behavior or thought.  For example, skipping meals is not normal or acceptable behavior; the patient using this defense mechanism is rationalizing the behavior by telling herself that she will eat a lot later on.

Rationalization occurs when an individual unconsciously generates an acceptable excuse for an unacceptable behavior or thought.  For example, skipping meals is not normal or acceptable behavior; the patient using this defense mechanism is rationalizing the behavior by telling herself that she will eat a lot later on.

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38

What waves are observed while awake?

Beta when fully awake

Alpha when relaxed

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39

Approximately how many sleep cycles are in a night's sleep?

There are approximately 4-6 sleep cycles in a typical night's sleep, each lasting about 90 minutes each.

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40

When does the greatest proportion of REM sleep occur?

The greatest proportion of REM sleep occurs just before waking

41

In general, as a study becomes more tightly controlled and confounding variables are limited, internal validity tends to _____ and external validity tends to ______.

In general, as a study becomes more tightly controlled and confounding variables are limited, internal validity tends to increase but external validity tends to decrease.

42

____ validity is mostly concerned with causality, or the extent to which changes in the dependent variable can be attributed to changes in the independent variable

Internal validity is mostly concerned with causality, or the extent to which changes in the dependent variable can be attributed to changes in the independent variable. 

 

The presence of confounding variables, which are additional variables that might influence results or outcomes, decreases internal validity by introducing the possibility that results are attributable to a confounding variable and not to the independent variable of interest.

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43

_____ validity is mostly concerned with generalizability, or the extent to which results can be applied to other situations (eg, outside the laboratory) or beyond the sample to the larger population.

External validity is mostly concerned with generalizability, or the extent to which results can be applied to other situations (eg, outside the laboratory) or beyond the sample to the larger population.

 

 Typically, increases in internal validity result in decreases in external validity, and vice versa.

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44

Classically conditioned responses rely on _____ memory.

Classically conditioned responses rely on implicit memory.

45

Which perspective states that cognition completely controls language? 

Universalism perspective

46

Which perspective states that cognition influences language (does not completely control)? 

Piagetian perspective

47

______ describes the discontent people experience when they believe they are entitled to something yet are being deprived of it.  

Relative deprivation describes the discontent people experience when they believe they are entitled to something yet are being deprived of it.  

48

Hard work, talent, intelligence, and physical attractiveness are also examples of _____ capital because these are all valued in society. 

Hard work, talent, intelligence, and physical attractiveness are also examples of cultural capital because these are all valued in society. 

49

_____ capital describes all of the nonfinancial and nonsocial network assets that confer advantage in society

Cultural capital describes all of the nonfinancial and nonsocial network assetsthat confer advantage in society

50

What are the three components of emotion?

The three components of emotion are cognitive, behavioral, and physiological.

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51

The _____ component includes all the mental processes that accompany the emotion, such as corresponding thoughts, motivations, beliefs, expectations, and an evaluation of the context/situation.

The cognitive component includes all the mental processes that accompany the emotion, such as corresponding thoughts, motivations, beliefs, expectations, and an evaluation of the context/situation.

52

The ______component of emotion is described as the immediate outward reaction that occurs in response to an emotion.  These responses are typically involuntary and automatic (eg, smiling, gasping).

The behavioral component of emotion is described as the immediate outward reaction that occurs in response to an emotion.  These responses are typically involuntary and automatic (eg, smiling, gasping).

53

______ is a neuroimaging procedure that relies on the principle that active neurons require increased blood flow for oxygen delivery

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroimaging procedure that relies on the principle that active neurons require increased blood flow for oxygen delivery

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54

_____ is most often associated with structural functionalism, a macro-level theory that compares society to an organism in which each component of society attempts to maintain homeostasis (dynamic equilibrium).

Émile Durkheim is most often associated with structural functionalism, a macro-level theory that compares society to an organism in which each component of society attempts to maintain homeostasis (dynamic equilibrium).

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55

_____ occurs when a person channels unacceptable urges, like a craving to smoke, into something more acceptable, like helping others to quit.

Sublimation occurs when a person channels unacceptable urges, like a craving to smoke, into something more acceptable, like helping others to quit.

56

______ occurs when you express the opposite of your true motivations or desires. For example, if the leader really wanted the participants to keep smoking, she would emphatically discuss how they should quit.

Reaction formation occurs when you express the opposite of your true motivations or desires. For example, if the leader really wanted the participants to keep smoking, she would emphatically discuss how they should quit.

57

___________ refers to responses becoming less extreme when participants are assessed again, instead of becoming less moderate or average. 

Regression to the mean refers to responses becoming less extreme when participants are assessed again, instead of becoming less moderate or average. 

58

_____ is known for his involvement with the humanistic perspective of personality

 Abraham Maslow is known for his involvement with the humanistic perspective of personality

59

________ is known in connection to the trait perspective of personality. He argued that three key types of traits contribute to personality: cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary traits.

Gordon Allport is known in connection to the trait perspective of personality. He argued that three key types of traits contribute to personality: cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary traits.

60

________ studied personality with a strong focus on the biological perspective, which considers personality differences to be the result of biological factors.

Hans Eysenck studied personality with a strong focus on the biological perspective, which considers personality differences to be the result of biological factors.

61

______ spearheaded the ideas of the real and ideal self. 

Carl Rogers spearheaded the ideas of the real and ideal self. 

62

In which portions of the mind would Sigmund Freud argue that the ego functions in these individuals?

a. conscious

b. preconscious

c. unconscious 

All of the above 

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63

The only condition that is characterized by a fixation on intentional malevolence or sadism is _______.

The only condition that is characterized by a fixation on intentional malevolence or sadism is antisocial personality disorder.

64

In sociology, _______ refers to what an individual believes should occur, while _______ refers to what one perceives as actually occurring.

In sociology, prescriptive refers to what an individual believes should occur, while descriptive refers to what one perceives as actually occurring.

65

The hippocampus is responsible for ____-term memory.

The hippocampus is responsible for long-term memory.

66

_______: how common the disease is

_______: the relative incidence of disease

Prevalence: how common the disease is

Morbidity: the relative incidence of disease

67

The ______ stage in Kohlberg's stages of moral development is characterized by more concern for rewards and punishments than social rules and laws.

The preconventional stage in Kohlberg's stages of moral development is characterized by more concern for rewards and punishments than social rules and laws.