Psych - culture- bound syndromes and epidemiology of common conditions Flashcards Preview

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1

LIfetime risk of schizophrenia in the general population

1%

2

The risk of schizophrenia in the identical twin of the affected
individual.

46%

3

The lifetime risk of unipolar depression in the general population

10-20%

4

incidence of anorexia nervosa in young females

0.5%. Affects females 10 times more than males

5

Risk of Bipolar in identical twin

70% (0.3%-1.5% in general pop.)

6

Untreated single episodes of this illness last between 4 and 30 weeks in mild to moderate cases. The risk of subsequent recurrence of similar episodes is roughly 30% at 10 years, rising to over 50% at 20 years.

Depressive episodes

7

This illness is associated with a prognosis of 20% full recovery, 20% severely ill, and the remainder showing chronic fluctuations. If left untreated, the mortality rate is roughly 10–15%. Poorer prognosis associated with late age of onset and male gender.

Anorexia nervosa

8

Long-term prognosis follows the pattern of 1/3 full recovery,
1/3 some improvement, and 1/3 remaining ill, although only
roughly 10–20% of those with a first episode will never relapse.
Death from suicide is increased 10-fold with this illness.

Schizophrenia (rule of thirds)

9

Following an initial episode, the risk of a subsequent dis -
turbance is 90% (40–50% in the first 2 years). Each episode is roughly 6 months long. In a 25-year period, patients may experience roughly 10 episodes.

Bipolar affective disorder

10

Around two-thirds of cases show improvement by the end of a
year, although 20–40% have a chronic course. Poor prognostic
factors are early onset, history of personality disorders, and persistent
life stressors, while better prognosis is predicted by good
premorbid social adjustment and episodic symptoms.

OCD

11

A 42-year-old male of South East Asian origin believes that his penis is retracting into his abdomen and will disappear. He believes that this is an indication of impending death.

Koro

Also known as ‘genital retraction syndrome’ and the affected individual believes that his penis is retracting inside his body. This syndrome is experienced more commonly in young single males in Asia and the Middle East, although it has also been described in other countries. The individual may take measures to stop the penis from retracting by using splints or other devices. It is most likely to be due to an acute anxiety state but may also be associated with depression and schizophrenia

12

A 27-year-old male of Native American origin believes that he
has undergone a transformation and has become a cannibal.

Windigo

A disorder thought to occur in the indigenous Native American population and is characterised by the fear or belief that one has been transformed into a creature that eats human flesh. It may be preceded by preoccupation with physical symptoms such as reduced appetite and nausea. It is thought to represent a form of depressive psychosis although no cases have been recorded.

13

A 35-year-old male of South Asian origin presents with a period of withdrawal followed by indiscriminate homicidal behaviour, during which he kills others and himself.

Amok

disorder characterised by sudden unprovoked acts of violence, which may be preceded by a period of brooding or depression. The individual has amnesia for the event. It is thought to be a dissociative or depressive disorder, and is most commonly seen in males of South Asian, African, and New Guinean descent.

14

A 50-year-old female of Inuit origin presents with a period of intense excitement, which is followed by apparent seizures and a transient coma.

Pibliotoq

also known as ‘arctic hysteria’ and has been described in females of polar Inuit origin. It is characterised by a period of excitement or impulsive acts such as tearing one’s clothes off, screaming and shouting, and running out into the snow. This may be followed by seizures and coma. It is thought to be an acute dissociative state.

15

A 37-year-old female of Malaysian origin has a frightening experience and presents with echolalia, echopraxia, and automatic obedience.

Latah

described in Malaysian females and occurs following an experience of trauma. There is an exaggerated startle reaction, which may be accompanied by echolalia, echopraxia, and a trance-like state. It may represent an acute psychotic disorder or a dissociative disorder.

16

described in men in the Indian subcontinent and refers to the belief that semen is being passed in urine. It is associated with lethargy, anxiety, hypochondriasis, and sexual dysfunction.

Dhat

17

described in African students, usually at times
of stress such as examinations. The individual complains of poor
concentration and memory, headaches, and other somatic symptoms.
It is likely to represent anxiety or depression.

brain fag

18

thought to occur in Central and South America following a stressful event. There is fear and anxiety associated with the belief that the soul had been stolen from the body.

susto

19

described in South America and occurs following a stressor. There is a trance-like state, symptoms of anxiety, impulsiveness, and depression. It is thought to be a dissociative disorder.

ataque de nervios

20

occurs in Japan and is the fear of embarrassing others with one’s appearance (body odour) or behaviour. It is thought to represent social phobia.

taijin kyofusho