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Flashcards in Psych Terms Deck (246):
1

Psychodynamic Therapy

Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self insight

2

Lobotomy

A now- rare psychosurgical procedure once used to control (calm) uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting to frontal lobes to the emotion- controlling centers of the inner brain

3

Subjective Well-Being

Self- perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well- being (for example; physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life

4

Drive Reduction Theory

The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state ( a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

5

Basal Metabolic Rate

The body's resting rate of energy expenditure

6

Scapegoat Theory

The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

7

Structured Interview

Interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of that asks the same job- relevant questions, each of whom is related on established scales

8

Standardization

Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

9

Canon-Bard Theory

The theory that an emotion- arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion

10

Incentive

A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

11

Validity

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

12

Reliability

The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting

13

WAIS (Adult Intelligence Scale)

The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test, contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests

14

Creativity

The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

15

Content Validity

The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

16

Instinct

A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

17

Aptitude Test

A test designed to predict a person's future performance

18

Savant Syndrome

A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as computation or drawing

19

Industrial Organizing (I/O) Psychology

The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

20

Adaptation Level Phenomenon

Our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, lights, income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience

21

Predictive Validity (Criterion Related Validity)

The Success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior

22

Intelligence Test

A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes & comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

23

Intelligence

Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

24

Self-Actualization

According to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after the basic physical and psychological needs are met and self- esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill ones potential

25

Phoneme

In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

26

Morpheme

In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or a part of a word ( such as a prefix)

27

Mere Exposure Effect

The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

28

Availability Heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind ( because of vividness), we presume such events are common

29

Concept

A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

30

Insight

A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

31

Confirmation Bias

A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

32

Representativeness Heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information

33

Functional Fixedness

The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

34

Algorithm

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

35

Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments

36

Framing

The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments

37

Language

Our spoken, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

38

One Word Stage

The stage in speech development, from about age 1-2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words

39

Two-Word Stage

Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two- word statements

40

Mental Set

A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

41

Cognition

The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating

42

Telegraphic Speech

Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram-" go car"- using mostly nouns and verbs

43

Babbling Stage

Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

44

Syntax

The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

45

Grammar

In a Language, a system of rules that enable us to communicate with and understand others

46

Linguistic Determination

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

47

Prototype

A mental image or best example of a category. Provides quick and easy method for sorting items into categories

48

Fixation

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set

49

Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently

50

Belief Perseverance

Clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

51

Attitude

Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events

52

Lymphocytes

The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system

53

Coronary Heart Disease

The clogging of the vessels that nourish he heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries

54

Type B Personality

Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people

55

Type A Personality

Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard driving, impatient, verbally aggressive and anger prone people

56

Deindividuation

The loss of self- awareness and self- restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

57

Health Psychology

A subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine

58

Stress

The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging

59

Social Responsibility Norm

An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

60

Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition

61

Psychological Illness

Literally "mind-body" illness, any stress- related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches

62

Aerobic Exercise

Sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also reduce stress, depression and anxiety

63

Counter-Conditioning

A behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning

64

Resistance

In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden- material

65

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases- alarm, resistance, exhaustion

66

Self-Disclosure

Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

67

Biomedical Therapy

Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patients nervous system

68

Emotion-Focused Coping

Attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction

69

Group Polarization

The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

70

Problem Focused Coping

Attempting to alleviate stress directly- by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor

71

Coping

Alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive or behavioral methods

72

Social Facilitation

Stronger responses on simple or well- learned tasks in the presence of others

73

Biofeedback

A system for electronically recording, amplifying and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension

74

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)

The study of how psychological, neural and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health

75

Insight Therapies

A variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the clients awareness of underlying motives and defenses

76

Intuition

An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

77

Behavioural Medicine

An interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease

78

Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM)

As yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement or serve as alternatives to conventional medicine, and which typically are not widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals, or reimbursed by insurance companies when research shows a therapy to be safe and effective, it usually then becomes part of accepted medical practice:

79

Conformity

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

80

Evidence Based Practice

Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences

81

Feel Good Do Good Phenomenon

People's tendency to be helpful with already in a good mood

82

Catharsis

Emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges

83

James-Lange Theory

The theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion- arousing stimuli

84

Emotion

A response of the whole organism involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors and conscious experience

85

Task Leadership

Goal achieved leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

86

Personal Psychology

A subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal and development

87

Testosterone

The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional amount in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

88

Sexual Disorder

A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

89

Estrogens

Sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

90

Sexual Orientation

An Enduring sexual attraction toward members of either ones one sex (Homosexual) or the opposite sex ( Heterosexual)

91

Refractory Period

A resting period after orgasm. During which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

92

Sexual Response Cycle

The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson- excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

93

Set Point

The point at which an individual's " weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore lost weight

94

Binge Eating Disorder

Significant binge- eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa

95

Glucose

The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues when the level is low, we feel hunger

96

Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve

97

Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high- calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

98

Homeostasis

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

99

Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher- level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

100

Motivation

A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

101

Heritability

The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes

102

Stanford-Binet

The widely used American revision ( By Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test

103

Achievement Test

A test designed to assess what a person has learned

104

Intellectual Disability

A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 10 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound

105

Polygraph

Lie detector. Measures the changes in breathing, cardiovascular activity and perspiration that accompany emotion

106

Social Leadership

Group oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict and offers support

107

Organizational Psychology

A subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organization change

108

Relative Deprivation

The perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

109

Flow

A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time resulting from optimal engagement to one's skills

110

Two-Factor Theory

The schachter- Singer theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal

111

Stereotype Threat

A self- confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

112

Intelligence Quotient (IQ = (ma/ca) x 100)

Defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by two

113

Down Syndrome

A condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21

114

Mental Age

A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; The chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.

115

Achievement Motivation

A desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people or ideas, for rapidly attaining a high standard

116

Normal Curve

The symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes

117

Psychoanalysis

Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the therapists interpretation of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self- insight

118

Role

A set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

119

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example: When our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions dash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes

120

Electro-Cognitive Therapy

A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

121

Stereotype

A generalized (sometimes accurate but often over-generalized) belief about a group of people

122

Anti-Psychotic Drugs

Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe though disorder

123

Foot in the Door Phenomenon

The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

124

Bystander Effect

The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

125

Anti-Anxiety Drugs

Drugs used to control and agitation

126

Anti-Depressant Drugs

Drugs used to treat depression, also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters

127

Meta-Analysis

A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

128

Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy

A popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self- defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)

129

Prejudice

An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotype beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to a discriminatory action

130

Attribution Theory

The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

131

Tardiv Dyskinesia

Involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long term use of anti- psychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors

132

Psychotherapy

Treatment involving psychological techniques, consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth

133

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMs)

The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity

134

Super-Ordinate Goals

Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

135

Out-Group

"Them"- Those perceived as different or apart from our in-group

136

Social Exchange Theory

The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

137

Social Trap

A Situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self- interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavio

138

In-Group

"Us"- people with whom we share a common identity

139

In-Group Bias

The tendency to favor our own group

140

Mirror-Image Perceptions

Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive

141

Aggression

Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

142

Regression Toward the Mean

The tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average

143

Active Listening

Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates and clarifies. A feature of Roger's client- center therapy

144

Equity

A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it

145

Other Race Effect

The tendency to recall faces of one's one race more accurately than faces of other races

146

Conflict

A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

147

Group Think

The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision- making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternative

148

Psycho Pharmocology

The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

149

Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension (GRIT)

A strategy designed to decrease international tensions

150

Passionate Love

An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

151

Peripheral Route to Persuasion

Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness

152

Just-World Phenomenon

The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get

153

Reciprocity Norm

An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

154

Discrimination

Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members

155

Psychosurgery

Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior

156

Compassionate Love

The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined

157

Transference

In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)

158

Normal Social Influence

Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

159

Frustration Aggression Principle

The principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression

160

Central Route to Persuasion

Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

161

Altruism

Unselfish regard for the welfare of others

162

Token Economy

An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats

163

Information Social Influence

Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality:

164

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy

An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to stimulations of their greatest fears, such as airplanes, spiders or public speaking

165

Denial

Defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities

166

Terror-Management Theory

A theory of death- related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of the impending death

167

Self-Serving bias

A readiness to perceive oneself favorably

168

Regression

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

169

Semantics

The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of the meaning

170

Self Concept

All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, " who am I?"

171

Unconditional Positive Regard

According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. A caring, accepting, non- judgmental attitude which develops self- awareness and self acceptance

172

Defense Mechanisms

In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

173

Identification

The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

174

Self

In contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions

175

Learned Helplessness

The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

176

Personal Control

The extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless

177

Collective Unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared , inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species theory

178

Spotlight Effect

Overestimating other's noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance and blunders

179

B Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes that form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections

180

Personality Inventory

A questionnaire (often with true or false, or agree/ disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits

181

Rationalization

Defense mechanism that offers self- justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions

182

Reaction Formation

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, People may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety- arousing unconscious feelings

183

Exposure Therapies

Behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people ( In imagination or reality) to the things they fear and avoid

184

Self-Esteem

One's feelings of high or low self- worth

185

Phobia

An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational, fear and avoidance or a specific object or situation

186

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawl, jumpy anxiety, and/ or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

187

Post-Traumatic Growth

Positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises

188

Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes- long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations

189

Anxiety Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

190

Dissociative Disorders

Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (Dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts and feelings

191

Major Depressive Disorder

A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

192

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

193

External Locus of Control

The perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate

194

Medical Model

The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital

195

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes

196

Bi-Polar Disorder

A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

197

Fixation

According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure- seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were resolved

198

Mania

A mood disorder marked by hyperactive, widely optimistic state

199

Trait

A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self- report inventories and peer reports

200

Internal Locus of Control

The perception that you can control your own fate

201

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions

202

D5M- IV- TR (The American Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition With an Updated "Text Revision")

A widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

203

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity

204

Anti-Social Disorder

A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrong doing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist

205

Conversion Disorder

A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found

206

Mood Disorders

Psychological Disorders characterized by emotional extremes

207

Empirically Derived Tests

A test (such as MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups

208

Hypochondrias

A somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

209

Social Cognitive Perspective

Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social context

210

Psychological Disorder

Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thought, feelings or behaviors

211

Somatoform Disorder

Psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause

212

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities

213

Behaviour Therapy

Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors

214

Schizophrenia

A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions

215

Family Therapy

Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members

216

Delusions

False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

217

Personality Disorder

Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

218

Reciprocal Determinism

The interacting influences of behavior, Internal cognition and environment

219

Interpretation

In psychoanalysis, the analyst's nothing supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight

220

Cognitive Therapy

Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions

221

Eclectic Approach

An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy

222

Drive Reduction Therapy

The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

223

Systematic Desensitization

A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety- triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias

224

Aversive Conditioning

A type of counter- Conditioning that associates an unpleasant state (nausea) with an unwanted behavior (drinking alcohol)

225

Client-Centered/ Person-Centered Therapy

A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rodgers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client's growth.

226

General Intelligence (g)

According to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

227

Displacement

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet

228

Id (Freud)

Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive driver; operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

229

Free Association

In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mine, how trivial or embarrassing

230

T Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes that form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses and foreign substances

231

Factor Analysis

A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions or performance that underlie a person's total score

232

Emotional Intelligence

The ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions

233

Oedipus Complex

According to Freud, A boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

234

Unconscious

According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologist, information processing of which we are unaware

235

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interest through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

236

Projection

Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

237

Projective Test

A personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli, designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

238

Psychosexual Stages

The childhood stages of development (Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the Id's pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

239

Ego

The largely conscious , "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, Mediates among the demands of the ID, superego, and reality; operates on the reality principle, satisfying the ID's desire in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

240

Rorschach Inkblot Test

The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

241

Wernicke's Area

Controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe

242

Social Psychology

The scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate one another

243

Social Loafing

The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

244

Broca's Area

Controls language expression- an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

245

Superego

The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations

246

Aphasia

Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area ( Impairing Understanding)