Psychodynamic (Freud) approaches to personality lectures Flashcards Preview

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1
Q

is id, ego, or superego associated with secondary processes?

A

ego

2
Q

is id, ego, or superego associated with the socialised voice?

A

superego

3
Q

What are the components of Freud’s topographic model? What does each represent?

A

unconscious - latent suppressed thoughts, often bad/harmful
preconscious - could be thinking about but are not
conscious - consciously thinking about

4
Q

What is meant by hydraulic model?

A

Freud’s theory is sometimes called a hydraulic model - because he believes that the unconscious is always trying to push itself upwards into the conscious

5
Q

Explain the principle behind Freud’s developmental model. What are the stages in this model? How are psychological problems or certain personality traits explained through this model (in general)?

A

People have to go through five psychosexual stages. Fixation occurs when someone stays in a stage too long which leads to psychological problems and certain personality traits - such as fixation in anal stage can cause either anal retentiveness or expulsion (chaotic disorganisation)

6
Q

What is the conflict/effect of fixation in oral stage?

A

stage of weaning from mothers breast.

If not done in time, person can develop passive dependence, or excessive smoking and eating habbits

7
Q

What is manifest content?

A

Manifest content – everyday dream stuff

8
Q

Because the sensor represses harmful unconscious thoughts. What are the two main ways in which Freud thought these thoughts emerged/could be studied

A

Dreams and Freudian Slips

9
Q

What did Freud think people revealing stories about child sexual assualt stemmed from?

A

Unfulfilled sexual desires. (Unconscious desires)

10
Q

What age is the anal stage

A

2-4

11
Q

What are “primary processes”

A

instincts

12
Q

Definition: “an individual’s characteristic pattern of thought, emotion, and behaviour, together with the psychological mechanismshidden or not – behind those patterns”

A

personality

13
Q

is id, ego, or superego associated with the need for instant gratification

A

id

14
Q

What is pleasure source in genital stage

A

Physical changes reawaken repressed needs. Direct sexual feelings towards others lead to sexual gratification. Ultimately, genitals.

15
Q

What is the conflict/effect of fixation in latency period?

A

Usually no fixation in this period, but if so, sexual immaturity and dissatisfaction

16
Q

If super ego dominates personality, people tend to have a lot of ____ and are quite ___________

A

guilt

rigid and controlled

17
Q

What is a Freudian slip

A

Unconscious thought slips into conscious language without person intending to

18
Q

What did Freud mean when he said the mind was a place of conflict?

A

Always unconscious conflict going on. (conflict between unconscious and conscious thought AND between superego - socialised thought and id) For Freud the hysterics wishes were always perverse and forbidden so therefore they could not be consciously acknowledged, if they acknowledged them consciously something bad would happen.

19
Q

Are Freud’s ideas still with us in altered form

A

Yes

20
Q

How did Freud treat patients with hysteria?

A

Hypnosis

21
Q

does id, ego, or superego operate on primary process

A

id

22
Q

is id, ego, or superego associated with the reality principle?

A

ego

23
Q

When is Freud’s sensor relaxed?

A

While sleeping

24
Q

What is the genetic or developmental model?

A

The psychosexual stages

25
Q

How would you define what is in the preconscious

A

Things you could be thinking of but are not. ie. memories, stored knowledge, plans, ideas

26
Q

What is the most criticised part of Freud’s early psychodynamic theory

A

Emphasis on sexuality and the belief that children were not innocent of sexual desires and experiences

27
Q

What are interference problems? Why had Freud and psychoanalysts been criticised for this?

A

wild, arbitrary, over-confident judgements

unreliable

the data are by nature ambiguous

28
Q

is id, superego, or ego sometimes depicted as the ‘devil’ on a your shoulder

A

id

29
Q

What do the different size sections of the iceberg model for Freud’s topographic model represent?

A

The size (in importance of each section)

Unconscious biggest, then preconiscience, than conscious

30
Q

What age is latency stage

A

6-puberty

31
Q

is id, ego, or superego associated with Freud’s defence mechanisms?

A

ego

32
Q

What was Freud’s “sensor” in regards to

A

The sensor is the mechanism whereby your brain determines whether unconscious thoughts would be harmful if they were ‘pushed up’ and so the sensor works to repress these unconscious thoughts

33
Q

Which model is the iceberg associated with?

A

Topographic model

34
Q

What age is the oral stage

A

0-2

35
Q

What did Freud discover often when he was hypnotising hysteria patients

A

Details about child sexual assualt

36
Q

Why did Freudians study dreams or freudian slips

A

Because it was a window into unconsciousness – and these moments revealed something about what was happening underneath. Giving an opportunity to address the underlying unconscious thoughts

37
Q

Freud was working in the era of what Queen? dates of reign

A
  • Queen Victoria of England (reigned 1837 - 1901)
38
Q

is id, ego, or superego associated with the self?

A

ego

39
Q

What is the pleasure source in the latency stage?

A

Sexual urges sublimated into sports and hobbies. Same-sex friends help avoid sexual feelings.

40
Q

What is the topographic model

A

Unconscious, preconscious, conscious

41
Q

What is the structural model?

A

Ego, Id, Superego

42
Q

Why is the conscious level the smallest? What is the relevance in research today?

A

Smallest amount of activity here. Research has shown that you can actually only thinking of one thing at once, and multi-tasking is better understood as the process of quickly switching between ideas

43
Q

Explain the components of the structural model of psychoanalysis? What do they represent?

A

id - impulsive desires, devil on the shoulder, pleasure principle, instant gratification

ego - the self, reason, reality principle

super ego - social influences, guilt, internalised standards

44
Q

Why has Freud’s two categories of desire (name them) been criticised?

A

Sex, and death.

Many many more categories of desire, and studies have shown that these two are not high on peoples list - things like sleep much higher

45
Q

When did personality first appear in the English language. What did it mean?

A

14th century

at that time it just meant being a person, as distinct from animals or inanimate objects

46
Q

What are dreams and Freduian slips for Freudians?

A

blips of the unconscious coming up

47
Q

What is the conflict/effect of fixation in the phallic stage

A

Stage where oedipus and electra conflict arise. as well as casturation anxiety and penis envy.

If unresolved, there will still be unconscious thoughts about wanting to kill father/mother

48
Q

What according to Freud, is the general impact of fixation

A

Negatively impacts personality (various changes in each stage)

49
Q

What is the problem with dream analysis?

A

There is no way to prove specific associations between content and meaning (or latent desire)

Nonsense according to lecturer

50
Q

What age is the phallic stage

A

4-5

51
Q

What is latent content

A

Latent content – the underlying meaning in dream content, what psychoanalysts tried to analyse. More insight from unconscious here

52
Q

is id, ego, or superego sometimes associated with an angel on your shoulder

A

superego

53
Q

For Freud what kind of things were in the unconscious

A

Lots of bad stuff. He had a dark view of the unconscious. ie unacceptable sexual desires, violent motives, selfish needs, fears, irrational wishes

54
Q

is id, ego, or superego associated with conscience and guilt?

A

superego

55
Q

What did Freud’s emphasis on childhood teach us?

A

at the time childhood was not seen as a special time at all during this era. Children were seen more as a source of income; they were not nurtured. But Freud showed that childhood experiences were important for forming a well-functioning adult.

56
Q

What are the two kinds of dream content according to Freud. What do they mean?

A

Latent content – the underlying meaning in content, what psychoanalysts tried to analyse. More insight from unconscious here

Manifest content – everyday dream stuff

57
Q

What is the name of each psychosexual stage (in order)

A

Oral

Anal

Phallic

Latency

Genital

58
Q

What is the conflict/effect of fixation in anal stage?

A

toilet training teaches child self-control. They see parents react to their toileting.

Effects of fixation:
retentive - obsessive neatness, anal retentive
expulsive - reckless, disorganised (shitting on everyone)

59
Q

There are four key features of early psychodynamic theory. What are they?

A
  1. Source of problem stems from the unconscious
  2. The mind is a place of conflict
  3. Emphasis on childhood experiences
  4. Emphasis on sexuality
60
Q

First (and most important) of four key features of early psychodynamic theory

A

source of problems stems from the unconscious

61
Q

Did Freud think unconscious conflict could be transformed into symbolic physical symptoms

A

Yes

62
Q

id operated on which principle

A

please principle

63
Q

According to psychoanalysis, what is the source of psychological problems?

A

the unconscious

64
Q

What model is the psychosexual stages associated with?

A

The genetic or developmental model

65
Q

what are “secondary processes”

A

processes which use reason (not instinct)

66
Q

According to the topographical model of psychoanalysis, what is contained in the unconscious? Explain how unwanted unconscious desires/motives are repressed and expressed.

A

Unconscious - latent desires, repressed dark thoughts, fears etc.

unconscious thoughts repressed through ‘the sensor’ to protect conscious mind from doing harmful things. Expressed through dreams (when sensor is weakened) and through Freudian slips - where unconscious cleverly slips out through language unintentionally

67
Q

What are the two main primary processes (instincts) according to Freud

A

Sex/Eros (libido)

Death/Thanatos

68
Q

What is fixation?

A

Staying in one of the developmental stages for too long

69
Q

What is the pleasure source in the anal stage

A

defecating or retaining feces

70
Q

Ego, Id, Superego are part of which model

A

Structural model

71
Q

What is the pleasure source in oral stage?

A

sucking, biting, swallowing

72
Q

What are some of the critiques of psychoanalysis?

A

No data to back it up

Grandiose statements with no evidence to support

Inappropriate ideas about childhood sexuality

Only studied mainly wealthy women of a very particular era

Dream analysis cannot be tested

73
Q

What is the conflict/effect of fixation in genital stage?

A

Stage of learning social rules of romantic relationships/sexual problems.

If fixation, unsatisfactory romantic relationships

74
Q

What was Freud’s zeitgeist? How did it impact his ideas?

A
  • During his formative years was working in the Victorian Era, which was a very prudish, sexually repressed era. People admired high levels of self-control over base/animalistic urges. People were socialised to reign in animalistic urges. Highly controlled society.
  • People thought that alcohol, mania, passion richness, hysteria, and even epilepsy were controllable and bad.
  • Jewish, living in Vienna, had to flee WWII
75
Q

What age is the genital stage

A

Puberty - onward

76
Q

What is the point of dream analysis? What are some the criticisms of dream analysis?

A

To examine latent unconscious thoughts and try to address those underlying issues.

No way to guarantee associations or guarantee that latent thoughts of those natures exist. No way to prove this through data

77
Q

What is the pleasure source in the phallic stage

A

Genitals

78
Q

Psychodynamic theorists believe that traits are fully formed by age 3 due to child rearing practices. True of False

A

True (Sapir, 1934)

79
Q

What was one of the most important contributions of Freud’s theories

A

The importance of the unconscious and the idea that humans were not completely rational

80
Q

Few areas of Freud’s theories are still being examined scientifically. The main area of his theory still being examined is:

A

defence mechanisms

81
Q

Interest in hysteria peaked in the (era)

A

1890s

82
Q

Psychodynamic therapists that are still working (not so much in Australia anymore) tend to base their practices on other thinkers like ____ instead of Freud

A

Jung

83
Q

ego is where conflict between the ____ and _____ is resolved

A

id and superego

84
Q

For Freud, personality reflects the interplay between:

A

id, ego, superego