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Flashcards in Psychology Deck (47)
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Psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes of humans or animals

1

Psychodynamic Theory (Sigmund Freud)

Based on the belief that unlocking the unconscious mind is the key to understanding human behavior and relationships

2

Behaviourism (BF Skinner and Ivan Pavlov)

Based on the belief that psychologists need evidence obtained through experimentation to understand and change human behaviour

3

Humanistic Theory

Believes the patient should be involved in his or her own recovery,rather than just relying on the therapist's interpretation of the issues

4

Cognitive Theory

Centers around the study and application of how the brain worms and includes mental states of mind such as beliefs, motivations and desires

5

Nature

- Your genetic makeup (DNA) has already decided what kind of person you are
- You are born with traits you cannot alter

6

Nurture

- Implies that the environment around you is responsible for who you are
- People you associate with, organizations you belong to, institutions within society

7

What do psychologists do?

Psychologists try to describe, explain, predict and control behavior and mental processes

8

Conditioning

A type of learning in which an animal or person responds to stimulus in a way that normally does not bring about response (Dr Pavlov)

9

Sigmund Freud's Theory of Personality

- Believes in the importance of nurture
- Psychosocial theory

10

What are the functions of the Id, Ego and Superego?

Id - wants immediate satisfaction, first instincts
Ego - balances the Id and Superego
Superego - similar to conscience, tries to stop things it knows are wrong

11

Conscious

- What you are aware of right now in your awake, alert state
- What you see, hear, smell, taste feel etc.

12

Preconscious

Memories you aren't aware of at the moment but can easily recall (ie. your last vacation)

13

Unconscious

- Millions of pieces of information you are not aware of
- Freud says we can access this part of the mind through dreams and hypnosis

14

Karen Horney (Neurosis)

A relatively mild mental illness that is not caused by organic disease, involving symptoms of stress depression, OCD, anxiety, hypochondria but not a radical loss of touch with reality

15

BF Skinner (Operant Conditioning)

- The organism is in its natural state until it encounters a reinforcing stimulus or event
- followed by consequence, modifies organism's tendency to repeat the behavior in the future

16

Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardiner)

Mental ability of humans is not fixed but possessed with a blend of cognitive competencies produce a unique intellectual profile

17

The 10,000 Hours Rule (Malcolm Gladwell)

It takes roughly 10,000 hours of practice to achieve mastery in a field

18

What is the role of the pre frontal cortex in the brain development of adolescents?

- Latest to mature
- Very busy
- Thinking, considering past and future choices
- Integrates basic instincts with emotions and impulses
- Consequences

19

Socialization

Process by which we learn behaviour skills, values and beliefs

20

Isolate

A child who has been kept away from others and has received the minimum of human care in the home

21

Feral

- A child who has spent significant time lost or abandoned with little to no human contact
- Primary socialization is with animals

22

Bipolar Disorder

A treatable medical illness marked by extreme changes in mood, thought energy and behaviour
Symptoms include extreme irritability, over reaction to stimuli, racing thoughts, poor judgment and decreased need for sleep
Treatments include psychotherapy, medication and ECT

23

Schizophrenia

Means "split mind": refers to fragments of thought that affects perception as well as social and emotional processes
Symptoms include hyperactivity, delusions, mental confusion and hallucinations
Treatments include cognitive behavioral therapy and antipsychotic drugs

24

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

The coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete and usually very different personalities that recurrently take control of the individuals behaviours
Symptoms include chronic and recurrent 6 to 7 years before diagnosis, transitions between identities triggered by stress, displaying traits foreign to the original personality

25

Stigma

A sign of -associated with- disgrace or shame

26

Phobia

A form of anxiety that involves an intense irrational fear of certain objects or situations
Symptoms: anxiety, trouble breathing, tense muscles, dizziness, sweating
Treatment: cognitive behavioral therapy

27

Stress

A subjective feeling of mental strain or pressure

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Hallucination

A person sees, feels or hears something that is not there

29

Delusion

A false belief